University of Rochester

Documenting Sources

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Illustrations | Footnotes and Endnotes | Examples of Notes | Bibliography



If you use photocopied illustrations in your paper, collect them in order of your discussion at the end. In the text refer to each image consecutively: figure 1, figure 2, and so on (or fig. 1, fig. 2). Under each illustration you should provide a figure caption providing full information about the image.

For example:

Figure 1. Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, oil on panel, circa 1504, Paris: Louvre.

Dimensions, and number from a catalogue raisonné may be included if relevant.

Claude Monet, The Gare Saint-Lazare, 1877, 75 x 100 cm., W. 438, Paris: Musée d' Orsay

Follow any additional guidelines provided by your instructor.


Footnotes and Endnotes

There are two different conventions governing footnotes and endnotes; be sure to ask your instructor as to which style he or she prefers, and then follow the prescribed format.

Chicago Manual of Style:
Footnotes contain the references in consecutive order at the bottom of the page and endnotes contain the references in consecutive order at the end of the essay but before the bibliography. Place foot/endnote numbers at the end of the sentence that contains the quotation you are documenting.
Social Sciences style:
This involves the use of an author's name and page numbers in parentheses in the body of the text with full references appearing only at the end of the paper in a bibliography. While some faculty in the Department of Art and Art history will accept this style, many do not. Ascertain before writing whether your instructor will accept internal references instead of footnotes or endnotes.


Examples of Notes

First reference to a book:
Michael Levey, Painting at Court (New York: New York University Press, 1971), p.134. Abbreviate subsequent references: Levey, p. 134. If you cite more than one title by Levey then abbreviate the titles: Levey, Painting, p. 138. to distinguish it from Levey, Early Renaissance, p. 85.
Reference to a book in multiple volumes:
Ronald Paulson, Hogarth: His Life, Art and Times (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1971), II, 161.
Reference to a book with more than one author:
John M. Rosenfield and Shujiro Shimada, Traditions of Japanese Art (Cambridge, MA: Fogg Museum, 1970).
Reference to an edited or translated book:
The Letters of Peter Paul Rubens, trans. and ed. Ruth Magurn (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1955), p. 238.
Reference to an article within a collection of essays:
Charles Pellet, "Jewellers with Words," in Islam and the Arab World, ed. Bernard Lewis (New York: Knopf, 1976), p. 151.
Reference to an encyclopedia entry (Note: The "p." is not included with page citations):
Thomas M. Messer, "Picasso, Pablo," Encyclopedia Americana 22 (1979), 67.
First reference to a journal (convert volume numbers from Roman to Arabic):
Anne H. van Buren, "Madame Cezanne's Fashions and the Date of Her Portraits," Art Quarterly 29 (1966), 119.
8. Linda Nochlin, "Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?," Art News 69 (January 1971), 38.
Reference to a review:
Pepe Karmel, review of Calvin Tomkins, Off the Wall: Robert Rauschenberg and the Art World of Our Time (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1980), New Republic (June 21, 1980), p. 38.
Reference to a newspaper:
Bertha Brody, "Illegal Immigrant Sculptor Allowed to Stay," The New York Times (July 4, 1980), sec. B, p. 12, col. 2.
Reference to an anonymous entry in a newspaper:
"Portraits Stolen Again," Washington Post (June 30, 1990), p. 7, col. 3.
Footnoting interviews, lectures, letters:
Interview with Alan Shestack, Director, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, July 12, 1988.
Howard Saretta, "Masterpieces from Africa," Tufts University, May 13, 1988.
Information in a letter to the author, from James Cahill, University of California, Berkeley, March 17, 1988.



Many instructors require a bibliography even for a short paper so that they can see at a glance the student's source material. If the bibliography is extensive, it may be advisable to divide it into two parts, Primary Materials and Secondary Materials.

A bibliography is arranged alphabetically by author so the last name is given first; subsequent lines are indented. For more suggestions see Sylvan Barnet, A Short Guide to Writing About Art (New York: Harper Collins, 1993).

  • Various examples follow:
  • Caviness, Madeline Harrison. The Early Stained Glass of Canterbury Cathedral. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977.
  • Rosenfield, John M., and Elizabeth ten Grotenhuis. Journey of the Three Jewels: Japanese Buddhist Paintings from Western Collections. New York: Asia Society, 1979.
  • Goldwater, Robert, and Marco Treves, eds. Artists on Art. New York: Pantheon, 1945.
  • Livingstone, Jane and John Beardsley. "The Poetics and Politics of Hispanic Art: A New Perspective." Exhibiting Cultures: The Poetics and Politics of Museum Display, eds. Ivan Karp and Steven D. Lavine. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian, 1991, 104-120.
  • Two or more works by the same author:
  • Cahill, James. Chinese Painting. Geneva: Skira, 1960.
  • Scholar Painters of Japan: The Nanga School. New York: Asia House, 1972.
  • Reference to a periodical in a bibliography:
  • Mitchell, Dolores. "The 'New Woman' as Prometheus: Women Artists Depict Women Smoking." Women's Art Journal 12 (Spring/Summer 1991): 2-9.
  • Bibliography Social Science Style:
  • White, J., 1973, "Measurement, Design and Carpentry in Duccio's Maest^," Art Bulletin 55 Pt. I, 334-66; Pt. II, 547-69.
  • ______, 1979, Duccio: Tuscan Art and the Medieval Workshop, London.