University of Rochester

Office of Communications

Creative Services

Style Guide


Popular Topics

Abbreviations and Acronyms

Addresses

Capitalization

Common Grammar
and Usage Problems

Copyright

Date
and Time

Graphic Standards

Inclusive Writing

Names
and Titles

Numerals

Punctuation

Rochester Names

Word List

Style Guide

Guide to Editorial Style for Print and Electronic Publications

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

A
a cappella

Not italics.

abbreviations

In running text, use the traditional abbreviations for states when they appear in conjunction with a city, and spell out when they stand alone.

He lives in Pennsylvania, but plans to move to Tacoma, Wash.
The company is based in Monmouth, New Jersey.

Academic degrees following a person's name are abbreviated and include periods with no spaces. Abbreviations are set off by commas.

Don Jones, Ph.D., has joined the faculty.
Astronomy professor Don Jones and his team are studying the origin of black holes.

When a civil or military title is used before a last name, it should be spelled out. With full names, the title should be abbreviated. Do not use title on second reference, except in quoted material.

Gen. Tommy Franks
Sen. Charles Schumer, D-NY (or describe party affiliation in context)
Gen. Tommy Franks is leading the mission. Franks described the situation as "tense," but his aide explained, "If there is a man for this task, it's General Franks."

Abbreviate and capitalize Co. and Corp. and Inc. and Ltd., and do not precede with a comma. These abbreviations are not necessary when the company name is familiar and the context is clear.

The abbreviation U.S. is to be used as an adjective only. As a noun, United States is spelled out.

Do not abbreviate street addresses in running text. Exceptions are the abbreviates NW, NE, SE, and SW used in some street addresses.

The construction on Wilson Boulevard will continue until March.

See academic degrees

academic degrees

Degrees are capitalized only when using the full formal name.

Bachelor of Arts degree, bachelor's degree

In most University publications, the abbreviated title Dr. should not be used to indicate a person's credentials in a field. Many style guides—particularly guides intended for use by the news media—recommend restricting the use of the abbreviation only to those who hold medical degrees (a distinction followed, for example, in news releases written by University Public Relations), but in an institution such as the University, that can seem like an arbitrary limitation. On the other hand, using Dr. before the name of all who hold medical doctor degrees and doctorates is cumbersome for readers.

Instead, University style recommends that in most instances, a person's credentials can and should be noted within the context of the publication, typically close to the first appearance of the person's name.

Jennifer Johnson, a cardiothoracic surgeon at Strong Memorial Hospital, performed the procedure.
Arnold Smith, a professor of pediatrics, met the family in the child's room.
Cynthia Jones, who holds a doctorate in toxicology, read the results.
History professor Don James and his team are studying the origins of black holes.

On subsequent references, people should be referred to by their surnames only without an honorific title. (Phrases such as "Dr. Jones" or "Professor Smith" should be limited to material directly quoted from a speaker or from another source.)

When the listing of academic credentials with a person's name is standard practice (for example, in official bulletins of the University), the abbreviations for the credentials should be listed after the name and be set off by commas.

Department of Philosophy
John Jones, Ph.D., Duke University
Sarah Smith, M.Phil., Cambridge University

Plurals of academic degrees do not take an apostrophe.

B.A.s, B.S.s, Ph.D.s
Bachelor of ArtsB.A.
Bachelor of MusicB.M.
Bachelor of ScienceB.S.
Master of ArtsM.A.
Master of Arts in TeachingM.A.T.
Master of Public HealthM.P.H
Master of ScienceM.S.
Master of Business AdministrationM.B.A.
Master of Science in NursingM.S.N.
Master of MusicM.M.
Medical DoctorM.D.
Doctor of Dental SurgeryD.D.S.
Doctor of PhilosophyPh.D.
Doctor of Musical ArtsD.M.A.
Doctor of EducationEd.D.
Doctor of PharmacyD.Pharm.
academic departments

Names of departments are capitalized only when using the full formal name, or when the department name is the proper name of a nationality, people, or race.

Do not abbreviate to "dept."

Department of Biology
biology department
Department of English
English department
academic year

An academic year straddles two calendar years. Drop the first two digits of the second year and connect with an en-dash.

2002–03

See class year.

academy

Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

acronyms and initialisms

Use full caps and no periods for acronyms and initialisms, with the exceptions noted in this style guide. In general, do not use acronyms on first reference for University organizations, committees, etc. There are some exceptions for nationally known organizations.

FBI, CIA, NASA
active voice

In active voice, the subject of the sentence does the acting.

Sally caught the ball.

In passive voice, the subject is acted upon.

The ball was caught.

Active voice is clearer and more direct; it is preferred in most cases.

actor, actress

Use actor for both male and female performers.

A.D.

Precedes the year, no comma.

The skeleton dates to A.D. 800.

C.E.(Common Era) is also acceptable usage.

addresses

Do not abbreviate street addresses in running text. Exceptions are the abbreviates NW, NE, SE, and SW used in some street addresses.

The construction on Wilson Boulevard will continue until March.

In running text, use the traditional abbreviations for states when they appear in conjunction with a city, and spell out when they stand alone.

He lives in Pennsylvania, but plans to move to Tacoma, Wash.
The company is based in New Jersey.

Commas are used to set off the individual elements in addresses in running text. No comma appears between an abbreviation such as NY and a street name or before a ZIP code.

His old house at 23 NE Main Street, Rochester, NY, was torn down ages ago.

E-mail and Web site addresses should be run into text with no special spacing or font treatment. Addresses can be broken at the end of a line, but do not add a hyphen.

Normal punctuation should be used after the address if needed.

You can e-mail Alumni Relations at info@alumni.rochester.edu.

In Web addresses that start with http://www., eliminate the http://. However, in addresses that start with http:// but are not followed by www, it is necessary to retain the http://.

The University's Web page can be found at www.rochester.edu.
At http://listener.uis.rochester.edu/alumni/, you will find many links to the University.
ad hoc (adjective and adverb)

No italics.

This is an ad hoc committee.
We will handle this ad hoc.
administration

Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

the University administration, Division of Administration and Finance
Administration and Finance, Division of

Capitalize when referring to offices in that division; lowercase in generic use. Do not use an ampersand (&). Do not abbreviate.

He works in the Division of Administration and Finance.
He has worked in university administration and finance for over three decades.
Administrative Annex

Located on the South Campus.

administrative titles

Use lowercase unless the title precedes the name. See the organizational charts for official administrative titles.

Seligman, president of the University
President Seligman
Matthew Burns, dean of students
Dean Matthew Burns
admissions

Admissions is always plural when referring to the Admissions Office or the Office of Admissions. Capitalize as part of the full, official name; lowercase otherwise.

Note that each academic unit of the University (the College, the Eastman School of Music, the School of Medicine and Dentistry, the Simon School and the Warner School) has its own admissions office. Be clear as to which office you are are referring. There is no "University" admissions office.

advisor

Not adviser.

affect, effect

Affect is a verb meaning to influence.

How will these changes affect the situation?

Effect is almost always used as a noun meaning result.

What will be the effect of these changes?
African-American (adjective), African American (noun)

See black.

age

Ages follow the rules for numbers. Spell out nine and under, use figures for the rest.

It was sad to watch the two-year-old boy struggle with his crutches.
Her daughter turned five last month.
When he was 16, he learned to drive.
ages and eras

Capitalize historical designations.

Stone Age
Middle Ages
Renaissance

Lowercase when merely descriptive.

space age
computer age
Reagan era
aircraft

The proper names of specific aircraft should be in italics. The model names of aircraft should be capitalized in roman type.

The Spirit of St. Louis
The aviation museum's collection include a vintage Piper Cub.
Alexander Palestra

Located inside Goergen Athletic Center on the the River Campus. Home site for University intercollegiate basketball and volleyball, with permanent seating for 2,200.

Palestra is acceptable on first reference.

alumni, alumnus

Alumni and alumnus are the preferred plural and singular terms of alumni of any gender. The feminine terms alumnae and alumna may be used given the context of the publication or the preference of the subject.

Do not shorten to "alum."

Capitalize alumni as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

Alumni Association, the College alumni

When referring to an alumnus in text, include the last two digits of his or her class year after the name with an apostrophe.

Patricia Kraut Mossel ’55 attended the event with her daughters.

When discussing an alumnus with multiple degrees from the University, list the degrees in the order in which they were received, with abbreviations following the graduate degrees.

"You have to drink tea everywhere, all day," says Pelin Aylangan ’90, ’98S (MBA), an expert on tea and Turkish culture.

When referring to a couple who are both University alumni, use the following construction:

Henry '70 and Marlene Herman Etlinger '70
a.m.

See time.

(-)American

Hyphenate most ethnicity combinations when used as an adjective. Do not hyphenate noun combinations.

African-American history
discrimination against Irish Americans in the 19th century

EXCEPTION: Latin American is not hyphenated when used as a adjective.

Ambulatory Care Facility

Located in the Medical Center.

ampersand (&)

Do not replace the conjunction "and" with an ampersand in text or headlines, unless the ampersand is used in an official name.

Bausch & Lomb Hall

Ampersands can be used in decorative headings in print and Web publications.

Anderson Tower

Residence hall located on the River Campus in Founders Court.

anti( )

Combines solid except before a capitalized word or the letter i.

antihero
antiwar demonstrators
anti-intellectualism
anti-American sentiment
apostrophe

Possessives of singular words are normally formed by adding 's .

a man's home
James's friend
Jesus's teachings

Possessives of plural words that have become plural by addition of an s or es are formed by an apostrophe only.

our leaders' views
the Joneses' house
the children's toys

When possession is joint, use an apostrophe only with the last owner.

John and Mary's house

When the possession is individual, use an apostrophe after each owner.

John's and Mary's computers are broken.

For plurals of single letters, add 's.

She got all A's this semester.

Plurals of academic degrees do NOT require an apostrophe

B.A.s, B.S.s, Ph.D.s
area code

The University area code is (585).

In general publications, when using University phone numbers in running text, use the complete phone number including area code (585). For internal publication, like Currents, the use of University extensions (x5-5277) is acceptable.

art works

Titles of all works of art (paintings, drawings, photographs, statues) should be in roman type with quotation marks.

See publications.
Arthur Kornberg Medical Research Building

Located in the Medical Center. Kornberg Building acceptable on second reference.

articles, titles of

Use roman type in quotation marks.

See publications.

arts and sciences

In text, arts and sciences should be all lowercase.

Sciences is plural in arts and sciences.

association

Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

University Athletic Association
We are forming a new association for alumni.
B
B.A., B.S., and B.M.

See academic degrees.

bachelor's degree

See academic degrees.

Bausch & Lomb Hall

Located on the River Campus. Use the ampersand. Department of Physics and Astronomy.

B.C.

Follows year or century; no comma.

painted in the ninth century B.C.
died in 12,500 B.C.

B.C.E. (Before Common Era) and C.E. (Common Era) are also acceptable usage.

bestseller (noun and adjective)

bestselling (adjective)

bi( )

Combines solid except before a capitalized word or the letter i.

biannual

Twice a year. May also use semiannual. For every two years, use biennial.

biblical references

In citing passages from the Bible, use book, chapter, and verse; roman type, no abbreviations.

2 Chronicles 7:14
Proverbs 3:5-11
bimonthly

Once every two months. For twice a month, use semimonthly.

biweekly

Once every two weeks. For twice a week, use semiweekly.

black

Acceptable as reference to an African American. Take the personal preference of the individual being described into account. Only use ethnic or racial distinctions when they are germane to the publication.

Board of Trustees

Capitalize the complete, formal name; lowercase otherwise.

The Board of Trustees will meet.
The trustees will meet.
The board will meet.

Capitalize trustee when it appears before a name.

Mary Brown, trustee since 1994
Trustee Mary Brown
book titles

Use italics for all book titles.

See publications.

bookstore

One word, lowercase. There are University bookstores located on the River Campus, at the Medical Center, and at the Eastman School of Music.

buildings

Capitalize building names. Can omit "Hall," "Building," etc. in informal writing and on second reference.

Wallis Hall
Rush Rhees Library
Drama House
He walks from Schlegel to Hoyt each morning.
Administrative Annex Robert B. Goergen Athletic Center
  Alexandra Palestra
  Edmund A. Hajim Alumni Gymnasium
  Field House
  Pool and courts
  Squash and Racquetball Center
Mt. Hope Professional Building
Ambulatory Care Facility Goler House New York State Center for Advanced Technology
Susan B. Anthony Halls
  Danforth Dining Center
  Gannett Hall
  Gates Hall
  Hollister Hall
  Morgan Hall
Graduate Maisonettes River Road Buildings
  River Road Laboratory
  River Road Residence
Bausch & Lomb Hall Harkness Hall Rush Rhees Library
Burton Hall Hill Court
  Chambers House
  Fairchild House
  Gale House
  Kendrick House
  Munro House
  Slater House
Sage Art Center
James P. Wilmot Cancer Center Hoeing Hall Schlegel Hall
Center for Optoelectronics and Imaging Hopeman Engineering Building Carol G. Simon Hall
Central Utilities Plant Hoyt Hall Spurrier Hall
Computer Studies Building Hutchison Hall
  Hubbell Auditorium
  Lander Auditorium
Strong Auditorium
Computing Center Hylan Building Strong Memorial Hospital
Crosby Hall Interfaith Chapel Supplies & Accounts Building
de Kiewiet Tower Arthur Kornberg Medical Research Building Taylor Hall
Dewey Hall Laboratory for Laser Energetics Tiernan Hall
Frederick Douglass Building
  Bookstore
  Dining Center
  The Meliora
Lattimore Hall Todd Union
Drama House Lovejoy Hall Towne House
Eastman Dental Center Mail Services Building University Park
Facilities and Services Building Medical Center Annex Valentine Tower
Fairbank Alumni House School of Medicine and Dentistry Wallis Hall
Fauver Stadium Medieval House Whipple Park Apartments
Founders Court
  Anderson Tower
  Wilder Tower
Meliora Hall Wilmot Building
Gavett Hall Morey Hall
  Eastman Kodak Colonnade
Wilson Commons
Gilbert Hall Mt. Hope Campus
  575 Mt. Hope Ave.
  590 Mt. Hope Ave.
  630 Mt. Hope Ave. (Peter Barry House)
  668 Mt. Hope Ave. (Ellwanger & Barry Bldg.)
  685 Mt. Hope Ave. (Fairbank Alumni House)
  692 Mt. Hope Ave. (Patrick Barry House)
Helen Wood Hall

Burton Hall

Located on the River Campus in the Residence Quad.

C
campuses

Capitalize campus when used in conjunction with a specific campus name; lowercase otherwise.

River Campus
Eastman Campus
South Campus
Mt. Hope Campus
Medical Center
He rides his bike to campus.
cannot (one word)
capitalization

The University uses the down style of capitalization; that is, the style discourages excessive use of capital letters in text.

In headlines, all words are capitalized except articles (a, an, the), conjunctions (and, but, or), and prepositions (of, in, on, etc.). The to of infinitives is also lowercase.

President to Announce Changes in the Curriculum

University, when referring to the University of Rochester, is always capitalized.

He graduated from the University in 1971.

Faculty and administrative titles are capitalized when the full title precedes the name; lowercase otherwise.

Professor of History William Jones
Charles Phelps is our ninth provost.
Provost Charles Phelps announced the initiative.

Names of departments are capitalized only when using the full, formal name.

Department of Biology; biology department

Degrees are capitalized only when using the full formal name.

Bachelor of Arts degree, bachelor's degree

Course names are capitalized. Course numbers are all caps with no periods.

Women in Early Modern Europe
HIS 447
Carol G. Simon Hall

Located on the River Campus. Administrative, faculty, and Ph.D. offices of the William E. Simon Graduate School of Business Administration; Margaret Warner Graduate School of Education and Human Development faculty offices; teaching laboratories of the Institute of Optics.

CD

Acronym for compact disc is acceptable on first reference when referring to audio/music discs. Do not refer to CD-ROMs as CDs.

CD–ROM

Acronym for compact disc–read-only memory is acceptable on first reference when referring to discs that store data and/or software. Do not refer to CD–ROMS as CDs.

Center for Optoelectronics and Imaging

Located on the South Campus. May be abbreviated COI on second reference.

Central Utilities Plant

Located on the River Campus.

centuries

Lowercase; spell out under 10.

ninth century
15th century
the 1700s
13th-century architecture
chair

For internal offices, use chair and not chairman.

Jack Frost, chair of the English department, will speak to the group.

EXCEPTION: Recent chairs of the Board of Trustees have usually preferred to be called chairmen (even the women). Check this for each use.

chairman, chairwoman, chairperson

For external offices, use chairman, chairwoman, or chairperson given the preference of the office holder.

The chairman of Xerox will speak.

Capitalize before a name as a title; lowercase otherwise.

We asked Chairman Robert Dempsey of CIP to address the class.
Chambers House

Residence hall located on the River Campus in Hill Court.

chapter titles

Use roman type in quotation marks. See publications.

class year

When referring to an alumnus in text, include the last two digits of his or her class year after the name with an apostrophe.

Patricia Kraut Mossel ’55 will retire at the end of the year.

When referring to an alumnus with multiple degrees, list the degrees in the order in which they were received.

"You have to drink tea everywhere, all day," says Pelin Aylangan ’90, ’98S (MBA), an expert on tea and Turkish culture.

When referring to a couple who are both University alumni, use the following construction:

Henry '70 and Marlene Herman Etlinger '70
coauthor
cochair
coed

May be used as an adjective as an abbreviation of coeducational, meaning the education of both sexes at the same institution. Do NOT use as a noun to refer to a female student.

College, the

Capitalize "College" when referring to the College of Arts, Sciences, and Engineering, the principal undergraduate unit of the University.

When it is necessary to identify the disciplines of the College, the following format is preferred:

the College of Arts, Sciences, and Engineering

Never use "the College of Arts and Sciences." The School of Engineering and Applied Sciences is a part of the College.

Lowercase arts and sciences in text generally.

The school has a strong tradition in the arts and sciences

When used in text, lowercase "the" and capitalize "College." Use of "the College" is acceptable on first reference.

colleges and schools

The University comprises six colleges:

The College of Arts, Sciences, and Engineering (the College is acceptable on first reference)
Eastman School of Music
School of Medicine and Dentistry
School of Nursing
William E. Simon Graduate School of Business Administration
Margaret Warner Graduate School of Education and Human Development

The Eastman School, the Simon School, and the Warner School may be used on second reference. Other variations and combinations are avoided.

colloquium

Colloquium is singular; colloquia are plural. Capitalize when part of a full, formal name; lowercase otherwise.

colon

A colon may be used in the following ways:

To introduce quoted material.

The mayor said: "I will resign my office immediately."

To introduce a passage either in or out of quotation marks.

The following message was received via e-mail:

To introduce a series.

The council will tackle three projects: city renovations, park improvements, and urban landscaping.

To separate the clauses of a compound sentence when the second clause is an illustration, a restatement, or an example of the first.

The Iraqi war planners faced one major obstacle: They lacked international support.

Avoid overusing colons for dramatic effect.

Do not use a colon for a list preceded by the word includes.

NOT— The list of attendees includes: John, Mary, Sue, and Mark.
comma

University style uses the comma preceding the and in a series.

Please check all copy for spelling, grammar, and consistency of style.

When abbreviations for academic degrees appear in text, they are set off by commas.

Mary Smith, Ph.D., will organize the concert.

When writing dates in text, the year is set off by commas.

The events of December 7, 1941, will long live in infamy.

BUT if the day is not specified then there is no comma before or after the year.

The events of December 1941 will long live in infamy.

Commas are used to set off the individual elements in addresses in running text. No comma appears between an abbreviation such as NY and a street name or before a ZIP code.

His old house at 23 NE Main Street, Rochester, NY, was torn down ages ago.
Commencement

Capitalize when referring to a University graduation exercise. Each unit of the University has its own commencement exercises. There is no "University Commencement."

Parents and friends are invited to attend Commencement this weekend.
committee

Capitalize when part of a full, formal name; lowercase otherwise.

The committee meeting is cancelled until next week.
The Outside Speakers Committee will meet on Monday.
compact disc

Use to refer to silvery disc upon which music is saved. NOT compact disk. The acronym CD is acceptable on first reference. Do not refer to CD-ROMs as compact discs.

company names

Abbreviate and capitalize Co. and Corp. and Inc. and Ltd. and L.L.P, and do not precede with a comma. These abbreviations are not necessary when the company name is familiar and the context is clear.

The panel will be led by Xerox chairman Anne Mulchahy.

Maintain odd capitalizations and punctuations. But when a name with a lowercase first letter begins a sentence, capitalize the first letter.

eBay, Yahoo!
EBay's initial public offering was one of the most successful of the dot-com era.
compass directions

Lowercase east, west, north, and south when they indicate direction. Capitalize in names and when used to indicate specific regions.

Winters in western New York can be harsh.
Winters in the Northeast can be harsh.
compound nouns

Don't run words together unless this style guide or the dictionary (Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary is preferred) allows it.

bookshop; noodle shop
homepage; Web site
compound adjectives

Hyphenate compound adjectives made up of a noun and an adjective when it might be unclear which of the two nouns the adjective modifies.

free-trade agreement; inner-city school; primary-care provider
affirmative action program; civil rights law; home equity loan; nuclear power plant

Hyphenate compound adjectives with a present participle.

data-processing program; role-playing exercise; intelligence-gathering agency

Hyphenate compounds with a past participle.

fine-tuned machine; much-needed rest

Hyphenate most compounds with a number as the first element.

20th-century art; second-highest mountain
BUT 10 percent reduction; $100 million grant

Hyphenate most compounds made up of more than three words.

once-in-a-lifetime chance
BUT Master of Arts degree

Hyphenate compounds denoting color.

black-and-white photo; blue-green dress; The dress was blue-green
BUT The dress was bluish green.

Do not hyphenate compounds formed with adverbs.

very tight jeans; once reliable friend; carefully chosen words

Do not hyphenate compounds that are derived from foreign expressions.

ad hoc committee

Do not hyphenate compounds that are chemical terms.

sodium chloride solution

Do not hyphenate compounds that are proper nouns.

Pulitzer Prize committee
BUT Pulitzer Prize-winning author

Combinations that are hyphenated before nouns should not be hyphenated in the predicate—even if they are hyphenated in the dictionary—when the meaning is clear.

She has a part-time job; She works part time.

See hyphen.

compositions, musical

See musical compositions

computer programs, names of

Capitalize the principal words in the names of computer programs. Do not use italics or quotation marks. Use the company's conventions for spelling.

Microsoft Word, PowerPoint

But when a name with a lowercase first letter begins a sentence, capitalize the first letter.

IMovie software is now available in all versions of Mac OS.
Computer Studies Building

Located on the River Campus. Departments of Computer Science and Electrical and Computer Engineering; Carlson Library.

conference

Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

consortium

Consortium is singular; consortia are plural. Capitalize when part of a full, formal name; lowercase otherwise.

continually, continuously

Continually means repeatedly.

He continually checked his voice mail during the meeting.

Continuously means without interruption.

He spoke continuously for more than two hours.
coordinator
co-owner
council, counsel

Council is an assembly or other governing body. Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

the Psychology Undergraduate Council; the council meeting

Counsel means advice or a lawyer.

We valued his wise counsel.
He served as the court-appointed counsel on the case.
courses

Course names are capitalized. Course numbers are all caps with no periods.

Women in Early Modern Europe
HIS 447
coursework (one word)
cox-2

Lowercase. Use on first reference and provide context later in publication. The full name of the enzyme is cyclooxygenase-2.

cox-2 inhibitors; cox-2 enzyme
cross-country

Hyphenate when referring to the sport.

He joined the cross-country team.
Crosby Hall

Located on the the River Campus in the Residence Quad.

currency

See money.

curriculum vitae

A summary of professional and educational experiences, usually used by academics. More complete than a resumé. No italics. Can be abbreviated as C.V. when the context is clear.

cut back (verb), cutback (noun and adjective)
D
Danforth Dining Center

Dining hall located in the Susan B. Anthony Halls on the River Campus.

dash

See em-dash, en-dash, and hyphen

data

Treat "data" as a plural noun and combine it with a plural verb when writing about the research meaning of the word.

The data from the pilot study are inconclusive.

Treat "data" as a collective noun and combine it with a singular verb when writing about data in the electronic, computer networking sense of the word.

When working with large files, the data is often compressed.

Data travels over wires, lines, networks, etc., not through them.

dates

Follow the month-day-year sequence when writing dates in text. The year is set off by commas.

The events of December 7, 1941, will long live in infamy.

BUT if the day is not specified then there is no comma before or after the year.

The events of December 1941 will long live in infamy.

Do not write the date as an ordinal number.

December 7, not December 7th
dean

Use lowercase unless the title precedes the name.

Ron Dow, dean of River Campus libraries
Dean Ron Dow
decision making (noun), decision-making (adj.)
degrees

See academic degrees.

de Kiewiet Tower

Residence hall located on the South Campus.

department

See academic departments.

Dewey Hall

Located on the River Campus. Margaret Warner Graduate School of Education and Human Development administrative and faculty offices; William E. Simon Graduate School of Business Administration faculty offices; Counseling & Mental Health Services; Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning.

diseases

Lowercase, unless the disease name contains a proper name that would otherwise be capitalized.

lung cancer
non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
Alzheimer's disease
dissertations

Use roman type in quotation marks for dissertation titles.


See publications.

disc, disk

Disc — an optical-storage medium designed to be written to and read by a laser

compact disc; laserdisc; digital versatile disc

Disk — a portable piece of plastic embedded with magnetic material, or a less portable metal-encased storage disk.

a floppy disk; a hard disk
division

Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

The Division of Genetics provides counseling services.
doctor

See academic degrees.

doctoral, doctorate

Use doctoral as an adjective and doctorate as a noun.

The doctoral degree Commencement ceremony will be held next Saturday.
She received her doctorate in English.
doctoral degrees

See academic degrees.

double major

Hyphenate when used as a verb.

She double-majors in political science and statistics.
She is a double major in political science and statistics.
download (verb and noun)
Dr.

See academic degrees.

Drama House

Residence hall located on the River Campus in the Fraternity Quad.

DVD

Has stood for both digital video disk and digital versatile disc. Acronym is acceptable in first reference to movie format. Do not use DVDs to refer to DVD-ROMs. DVD-ROMs store music, movies, or software and are played in the DVD-ROM drive of a computer.

E
earth

Lowercase when referring to dirt or the ground; capitalize when personified or when referring to the planet.

He needs to come down to earth.
The rich, dark earth is ideal for farming
He majors in earth science.
The asteroid narrowly missed hitting the Earth.
east

See compass directions

Eastman Campus

Located in downtown Rochester, to the north of the River Campus. Comprises the Eastman School of Music, Eastman Theatre, the Eastman Student Living Center, the Miller Center (formerly known as Eastman Place), and the Sibley Music Library.

Eastman Dental Center

Located at the Medical Center.

Eastman Kodak Company

Use full name on first reference, Kodak on subsequent references.

Eastman School of Music

May be shortened to "Eastman School" on second reference, but not to simply "Eastman." Do not abbreviate to ESM in formal writing.

Eastman Theatre

Not "Theater." Located on the Eastman Campus.

Ed.D.

See academic degrees.

Edmund A. Hajim Alumni Gymnasium

Located in the Robert B. Goergen Athletic Center on the River Campus. Offices of Athletics and Recreation, multipurpose rooms, fitness center, weight rooms.

effect, affect

See affect, effect

electric, electrical, electronic

Do not use these terms interchangeably. The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms defines electric as "containing, producing, arising from, actuated by or carrying electricity."

electric blanket; electric light

By contrast, electrical means "relating to, pertaining to, or associated with electricity but not having its properties."

electrical engineer

Electronics as a plural noun suggests devices and equipment. As an adjective, electronic suggests that something is implemented on or by means of a computer.

electronic filing; electronic banking
ellipsis ( . . . )

An ellipsis is three dots (periods) used to indicate omission (of a word, phrase, line, etc.). There is a space on both sides of each dot. Do not insert an ellipsis symbol; type out the ellipsis using periods and spaces.

If the omitted material is at the end of the sentence, a period follows the last word followed by the ellipsis.

"That was the end of the case. . . . Sentencing begins on Tuesday."
Ellwanger & Barry Building

Located on Mt. Hope Campus. Use the ampersand.

e-mail

Hyphenate the word in all uses. Do not hyphenate compound nouns formed with this word.

e-mail account

E-mail can mean one single message.

He sent me an e-mail about that problem.

Or it can mean many messages. In this case, treat as a collective noun with a singular verb.

Unsolicited e-mail is a problem for most businesses.

Or it can refer to an entire e-mail system.

Our e-mail will be down for 20 minutes this afternoon.

E-mail can also be used as a verb or an adjective.

Please e-mail me with any questions.
Use the e-mail form on our Web site.

E-mail addresses should be run into text with no special spacing or font treatment. Addresses can be broken at the end of a line, but do not add a hyphen.

Normal punctuation should be used after the address if needed.

You can e-mail the Alumni Association at info@alumni.rochester.edu.
em-dash (—)

Em-dashes are used to denote sudden changes in sentence structure. They are also used (instead of commas) to set off an explanation or emphasis.

Joan—despite her brother's warning—entered the dark building.

The em-dash is often typed as a double hyphen in copy. In printed material, this should be changed to an em dash—which has no space on either side. University typographical standards are to add a little "air" on either side of the dash, but NEVER a full space. In Web copy, use the HTML code —

CAUTION: Since the em dash is a more commanding stop than a comma, overuse of dashes is more jarring to readers than overuse of commas. Use sparingly.

emeritus, emeriti, emerita

Emeritus is an honorary rank bestowed on some retired University faculty. NOT EVERY retired faculty member has emeritus status, so do not use the terms interchangeably.

Always use the contruction "professor emeritus" NOT "emeritus professor." The title should be in lowercase; avoid constructions with the title before the name.

John Williams was named professor emeritus of mathamatics in 1980.

Emeritus and emeriti are the preferred singular and plural terms of professors of any gender. The feminine term emerita may be used given the context of the publication or the preference of the subject.

The Department of History held a banquet to honor its professors emeriti.
en-dash (–)

An en-dash is used to connect continuing or inclusive numbers, replacing the word to in dates, times, or reference numbers. It is also used instead of a hyphen in compound adjectives when one or more of the elements consists or more than one word.

1968–72
10 a.m.–5 p.m.
pp. 35–45
New York–London flight

An en-dash is half the length of an em-dash and longer than a hyphen. In copy it is usually typed as a hyphen. In Web copy, use the HTML code –

endowed chairs

Names of endowed chairs are always capitalized, whether accompanied by a personal name or not.

Mary Wellman, Alfred R. Warren Distinguished Service Professor
The Burt Wolbach Professor of Pathology will teach this ongoing seminar.
eras

See ages and eras.

ex(-)

When it means former, hyphenate.

ex-president
exclamation point (!)

Use very sparingly. Exclamation points go inside the closing quotation mark when it applies only to the quoted material, outside otherwise.

"I can't believe it!" she cried.
exhibitions, titles of

Use italics for the titles of art exhibitions.

The Dimensions in Pop exhibition will run through March.

Exhibition, not exhibit, is the preferred term for a public showing of art and other creative works.

F
fact book

Two words. Capitalize as part of a title; lowercase otherwise.

The department will produce its own fact book.
The online edition of Fact Book 2001–02 is now available.
faculty

Faculty titles are lowercase unless the title precedes a name.

Jones, professor of history
Professor of History Jones

On subsequent references, faculty should be referred to by their surnames only without an honorific title. (Phrases such as "Dr. Jones" or "Professor Smith" should be limited to material directly quoted from a speaker or from another source.)

Do not use the abbreviation prof. when referring to faculty.

There are several ranks of faculty (assistant, associate, professor, instructor) and it is important to note that these should not be used interchangeably.

Names of endowed chairs are always capitalized, whether accompanied by a personal name or not.

Mary Wellman, Alfred R. Warren Distinguished Service Professor
The Burt Wolbach Professor of Pathology will teach this ongoing seminar.
Fairbank Alumni House

Located on Mt. Hope Campus.

Fairchild House

Residence hall located on the River Campus in Hill Court.

fall

See seasons.

FAQ

Stands for Frequently Asked Questions. Can use this abbreviation on first reference in running text or as a heading in electronic or print publications.

farther, further

Farther refers to physical distance. Further refers to an extent of time or degree.

His new apartment is 10 miles farther from his workplace than his old apartment.
We won't take this discussion any further today.
faze, phase, Phase

Faze is a verb meaning to disturb or disconcert.

Nothing ever seemed to faze her.

Phase is a noun meaning a step or part of process, or as a verb meaning to carry out in stages.

We are ready to begin the next phase of the project.
We plan to phase in these changes over the next year.

"Phase" is a nickname given to the Hill Court residence halls. Avoid use in formal writing.

Fauver Stadium

Located on the River Campus. 5,000-seat, concrete-and-brick stadium with artificial turf and lights. Also houses coed training room, and has a 400-meter track encircling playing field. Site of intercollegiate field hockey, lacrosse, football, track and field, and soccer. Planning and Project Management, second floor. At the south end of the stadium building are the River Campus parking offices and University Computer Sales.

federal

Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

the Federal Emergency Management Agency; the federal government
fellow

Lowercase.

a university fellow
a research fellow
a Nieman fellow
BUT a Nieman Fellowship
fellowship

Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

He received a Boren Fellowship.
He received a research fellowship.
fewer, less

Use fewer for things you can count

fewer calories

and less for things you measure.

less time

Less can also be used as a adverb.

less successful ideas — meaning "ideas that are less successful than others."

Fewer can only be used as an adjective.

fewer successful ideas — meaning "fewer ideas that are successful."
Field House

Located in the Robert B. Goergen Athletic Center on the River Campus. 12,000-square-foot indoor playing surface covered by artificial turf, with one-eighth-mile running track around the perimeter.

figures

See numbers.

filmmaking (noun and adjective)
films

Titles of films should be in italics.

Gone with the Wind is still my favorite movie.
firewall

Wired Style defines as a "wall of software that keeps unauthorized meanderers or malicious intruders outside a network." Write as one word in all cases.

floppy disk

Generally refers to the 3.5 inch disks used to store computer data. Use floppy disk, not floppy disc. Floppy is also acceptable.

I saved it to my floppy.

Plural is floppies.

foreign words and phrases

Do not italicize foreign words of phrases if they are familiar and appear in Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary.

He claims there was no quid pro quo.
The Scottish coat of arms bears the national motto Nemo me impune lacesset.
foundation

Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

the Head Start Foundation
foundation grants
Founders Court

Student residence located on the River Campus. Includes Anderson Tower and Wilder Tower.

fractions

Spell out and hyphenate when a fraction is used as an adjective and not part of a larger figure.

He was two-thirds finished.

Do not hyphenate when a fraction is used as a noun.

He finished two thirds of the project.

When the denominator itself is hyphenated, drop the hyphen between the numerator and the denominator.

five twenty-eighths

When a fraction is added to a whole number, use figures for the entire number.

He'll be here in 2 1/2 days.
Frederick Douglass Building

Located on the River Campus. A student dining center; meeting rooms; River Campus bookstore; The Meliora (formal/informal dining).

(-)free
wheat-free recipes
These recipes are wheat free.
full time, full-time
They work for us full time. They have full-time jobs.
fundraise, fundraiser, fundraising

Always closed. Fundraise can be used as a verb.

They are holding a fundraiser tonight.
He is their best fundraiser.
He attended a fundraising dinner.
She came to campus to fundraise.
Fundraising is prohibited in the dorms.
G
Gale House

Residence hall located in Hill Court on the River Campus.

Gannett Hall

Residence hall located in the Susan B. Anthony Halls on the River Campus.

Gates Hall

Residence hall located in the Susan B. Anthony Halls on the River Campus.

Gavett Hall

Located on the River Campus. Offices, classrooms, and laboratories of the Department of Chemical Engineering; office of the Department of Biomedical Engineering; laboratories of the Department of Mechanical Engineering and of the Institute of Optics.

gay

Adjective. May be applied to both men and women as a description of sexual orientation. Only use when the distinction is germane to the publication.

GED

General equivalency diploma. No periods. Acceptable on second reference.

gender

Consider alternatives to language that emphasizes a person's sex, or that implies certain occupations are in the exclusive domain of men or women, or that identifies the male as the archetype for the human race.

LIMITING TERM ALTERNATIVE
businessman, businesswoman businessperson, business executive
chairman, chairwoman chair, presiding officer
councilman council member
fireman firefighter
policeman police officer

man, mankind humankind, humanity, the human race
manpower staff, personnel, workforce
the man for the job the person for the job

See he/she.

genus and species

See scientific names.

geographic terms

Capitalize places, real or imaginary, with special names.

Scottish Highlands; Finger Lakes; Gotham City
Gilbert Hall

Located on the River Campus in the Residence Quad.

Goler House

Graduate student residence located adjacent to the Medical Center. Full name is George Washington Goler House; Goler House is acceptable in all cases.

Golisano Children's Hospital at Strong

Part of the Medical Center. Can be shortened to Golisano Children's Hospital on second reference.

government

Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

We receive government funding.
We receive funding from the U.S. government.
We receive funding from the Digital Government Institute.
GPA

Grade point average. No periods. Acceptable on second reference

He had a 3.4 grade point average in high school.
grade
first-grade student
10th-grade student
grade six
grades 10 to 12
low-grade radiation
grade A beef
grader
first grader
10th grader
grades

Capitalize, no quotes. For plurals, add 's. Plus and minus signs (use an en dash) are acceptable when the meaning is clear.

She got an A minus.
She got two F's last year.
He was disappointed with the C– he received on his final exam.
graduate (noun and adjective)

Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

He is a University graduate.
He is taking graduate courses.
He is a member of the Graduate Organizing Group.
graduate (verb)
She graduated from the University.
She graduated from college.
She graduated at the top of her class.
NOT: She graduated the University. She graduated college. She was graduated from the University.
Graduate Living Center Maisonettes

Graduate student residences located on the South Campus. May be abbreviated to GLC Maisonettes.

GRE

Graduate Record Exam. No periods. Acceptable on second reference.

H
handbook

One word. Capitalize as part of a title; lowercase otherwise.

The department will produce its own handbook.
The online edition of the Employee Handbook is now available.
Harkness Hall

Located on the River Campus. Offices of the Departments of Economics and Political Science; Wallis Institute.

Hanukkah
hard disk

Not "hard disc."

he/she

Reword sentences to avoid the awkward construction of he or she, his or her, or he/she.

A student may pick up his or her materials tomorrow.
can be rewritten as
Students can pick up their materials tomorrow.
headings

Use a consistent heading style within your publication or Web site. Headings need not be complete sentences; phrases and even single words are acceptable if applied consistently.

In Web sites, use the heading tags (h1, h2, h3, etc.) to create relational headings on your pages and to help Web crawlers and search engines accurately index your site.

headlines

In headline style, all words are capitalized except articles (a, an, the), conjunctions (and, but, or), and prepositions (of, in, on, etc.). The to in infinitives is also lowercase.

President to Announce Changes in the Curriculum.

Use figures in headlines for numbers of any size.

Laser Lab Wins 3 Patents in 12 Years

Use single quotes in headlines.

Meliora Weekend 'Biggest Ever,' Says Director
health care (noun and adjective)
Our goal is to provide better health care.
She is a health care professional.
heavenly bodies

Planets, stars, constellations, etc., are capitalized. The generic portions of their names are lowercase.

the constellation Orion
Phobos, one of Jupiter's moons
comet Hyakutake
height

Use figures.

She is 5 feet, 2 inches tall.
She is a 5-foot, 2-inch woman.
She is 5 foot 2.
She is a 5-foot-2 point guard.
Helen Wood Hall

Located in the Medical Center. School of Nursing; Program for Pediatrics; Departments of Community and Preventive Medicine and Family Medicine; classrooms.

high school (noun and adjective)
high tech (noun and adjective)
Hill Court

Complex of residence halls located on the north end of the River Campus.

  • Chambers House
  • Fairchild House
  • Gale House
  • Kendrick House
  • Munro House
  • Slater House
Hispanic

Hispanic is acceptable as a noun and as an adjective referring to people tracing their descent to Latin America, Spain, or Portugal. Only use when the distinction of ethnicity is germane to the publication.

He is a Hispanic.
He is Hispanic.
He is the first Hispanic judicial nominee from the state.

Hispanics may be of any race, so do not write "Hispanics and whites." Use "Hispanics and non-Hispanics."

historic, historical

Historic means history making.

Columbus's voyage was a historic moment. (NOTE: not "an historic")

Historical means pertaining to the study of history.

The report is a historical analysis of the Cold War. (NOTE: not "an historical")

Names of individual, easily recognized historic events should be capitalized. If in doubt, lowercase.

World War II; Boston Tea Party
HIV

Stands for human immunodeficiency virus. "HIV virus" is redundant.

Hoeing Hall

Located on the River Campus in the Residence Quad.

holidays

Capitalize holidays, special days, special weeks, etc.

Christmas; Veterans Day; Breast Cancer Awareness Week
homepage

Always lowercase and write solid.

Visit the Office of Technology Transfer homepage.

Avoid referring to your homepage on your homepage. It can confuse your visitors, who may think there is some "bigger" page that they are missing.

Always include a link back to your homepage from the internal pages of your Web site. Make sure the link is labeled consistently and in the same location on each of your internal pages.

home schooling

home schooling (noun)

He is opposed to home schooling.

home-schooling (adjective)

We have devised a new home-schooling curriculum.

home-school (verb)

They home-school their three children.

home-schooled (verb or adjective)

She was home-schooled until high school.
He is a home-schooled student.
homosexual

See gay.

honorific titles

Use the honorifics Miss, Mr., Mrs., and Ms. only in quotes. When it is necessary to distinguish family members from one another, use first names rather than honorifics.

The Smiths agreed that John would support the family while Jane went to graduate school.
Hopeman Engineering Building

Located on the River Campus. Offices, classrooms, and laboratories of the Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Mechanical Engineering.

Hoyt Hall

Located on the River Campus. Houses a 300-seat auditorium for lectures, meetings, films, and conferences.

husband/wife

Set off spouse names with commas. Do not use the construction, "Mr. and Mrs. Bob Smith." Include the names of both people.

Bob and his wife, Mary, will attend the reunion.
Bob and Mary Smith will attend the reunion.
Hutchison Hall

Located on the River Campus. Undergraduate Program in Biology and Medicine; Departments of Biology, Chemistry, and Earth and Environmental Sciences; a greenhouse complex; Hubbell Auditorium; Lander Auditorium.

Hylan Building

Located on the River Campus. Departments of Mathematics and Statistics; Office of Research and Project Administration.

hyphen

The following are some general guidelines for hyphen usage. See entries for individual words for further explanations.

NATIONALITY COMBINATIONS: Hyphenate most ethnicity combinations when used as an adjective. Do not hyphenate noun combinations.

African-American history
discrimination against Irish Americans in the 19th century
EXCEPTION: Latin American is never hyphenated.

NUMBERS: from twenty-one to ninety-nine, when spelled out, are hyphenated.

FRACTIONS: Hyphenate a fraction when it is used as a adjective (e.g., a two-thirds majority). Write as two words when used as a noun (e.g. two thirds of the participants).

X-TO-Y COMBINATIONS: 16-to-32-year-olds

INVENTED VERBS: Woods three-putted on the ninth green.

SUSPENDED HYPHENS: They climbed the third- and fourth-highest peaks.

PREFIXES: Prefixes are generally solid. Follow entries for individual words and the dictionary for words not in this style guide.

i
Inc.

Abbreviate and capitalize; do not set off with commas. This abbreviation is not necessary when the company name is familiar and the context is clear.

initials

When a person uses initials for their first name, the initials are followed by periods and a space.

H. L. Mencken
W. E. B. DuBois
institute

Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

Institute of Optics, the
Interfaith Chapel

Located on the River Campus. May be referred to as "the chapel" on second reference.

Internet

Always capitalize.

intranet

A private network within an organization; lowercase unless part of a larger proper name.

We plan to establish an intranet for sharing internal documents.
We've signed a contract with Dashboard Intranets for the design.
IT

Information technology. Do not use this abbreviation in general text. Acceptable as part of the proper name or a group or organization.

italics

In body text, use italics sparingly to create emphasis.

You must submit three copies.

The following types of titles should be in italics:

newspapersbooks
magazinesmovies
pamphletsoperas
proceedings and collectionsoratorios
periodicalsmusical compositions (Individual pop songs are NOT in italics. Use roman type in quotation marks.)
poemsplays
TV series (Individual episodes, single programs are NOT in italics. Use roman type in quotation marks.)art exhibitions
ships, spacecraft, aircraft
(but not the abbreviations: SS, USS, HMS, etc.)
its, it's

"Its" is the possessive form of the pronoun it. "It's" is the contraction for it is.

To fix the computer malfunction, we had to replace its motherboard.
"It's just not possible at this time," she explained.
j
journals

Use italics for journal titles. Use roman type in quotation marks for individual journal article titles.

Jr.

Do not set off with commas.

Sammy Davis Jr.
k
Kendrick House

Residence hall located on the River Campus in Hill Court.

Koran

Preferred spelling for the Muslim holy book.

L
Laboratory for Laser Energetics

Located on the South Campus. LLE is acceptable on second reference. Can also be referred to as "Laser Lab" in informal writing.

Lattimore Hall

Located on the Eastman Quadrangle on the River Campus. Office of the Registrar; Offices of the Dean of the College and of the Dean of the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences; College Center for Academic Support; College Center for Study Abroad and Interdepartmental Programs; Orientation Office; Departments of Anthropology, Linguistics, Modern Languages and Cultures, and Philosophy; Susan B. Anthony Institute for Gender and Women's Studies; American Sign Language Lab; a 153-seat auditorium; classroom and seminar rooms.

Latin American

Acceptable as a noun or adjective for people of Spanish-speaking (excluding people from Spain). When deciding whether to apply Hispanic, Latin American, or Latino, take personal preference into account. Only use ethnic or racial distinctions when they are germane to the publication.

Latino, Latina

Latino is the preferred singular term or adjective for someone of any gender. The feminine terms Latina may be used given the context of the publication or the preference of the subject.

When deciding whether to apply Hispanic, Latin American, or Latino, take personal preference into account. Only use ethnic or racial distinctions when they are germane to the publication.

lectures

Use roman type in quotation marks for titles of lectures or presentations.

less, fewer

See fewer, less

library, libraries

Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

Libraries at the University include:

River Campus

  • Rush Rhees Library
  • Art and Music Library
  • Chester F. Carlson Science Library (science and engineering)
  • Government Documents & Microtext Center
  • Koller-Collins Graduate English Center
  • Laboratory for Laser Energetics Library
  • Management Library
  • Multimedia Center
  • Physics-Optics-Astronomy (POA) Library
  • Rossell Hope Robbins Library
  • Department of Rare Books, Special Collections and Preservation

Eastman School of Music

  • Sibley Music Library

Medical Center

  • Edward G. Miner Library

Memorial Art Gallery

  • Charlotte Whitney Allen Library
LLE

Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Abbreviation acceptable on second reference.

log on, log in, logon, login

Log on and log in are verbs. You log on to access a computer or network. When you are finished, you log off. Logon and login are nouns. You use your login to log on to your computer.

long-standing

Always hyphenate.

Our organizations have had a long-standing partnership.
long-term

Always hyphenate, as both a noun and adjective.

We plan to change our policy in the long-term.
Our long-term policy will change.
longtime

Not hyphenated.

His longtime friend nominated him for the award.
Lovejoy Hall

Located on the River Campus in the Residence Quad.

M
M.A., M.S., M.M., M.B.A., M.A.T., M.P.H., M.S.E., M.S.N.

See academic degrees.

M.D.

See academic degrees.

magazines

Use italics for the names of magazines. Capitalize and italicize "magazine" only when it is part of the official name of the publication.

PC Magazine, Time magazine
Mail Services Building

Located on W. Henrietta Rd., to the east of the Medical Center.

Maintenance-Transportation Building

Located on the River Campus.

Margaret Warner Graduate School of Education and Human Development

May be shortened to "Warner School" on second reference, but not to simply "Warner." Avoid other constructions of the name.

master's degrees

See academic degrees.

media, medium

The media are plural. Medium is the singular form of the noun, used to indicate one type of media.

The media are partly responsible for increases in teen violence.
Radio is a useful medium for advertisers.
Medical Center

The Medical Center is both a geographic and administrative unit of the University, comprising the School of Medicine and Dentistry, School of Nursing, Strong Memorial Hospital, Eastman Dental Center, and the Arthur Kornberg Medical Research Building.

Always capitalized. Do not shorten to "Med Center" in formal writing.

Medical Center Annex

Research building located at the Medical Center.

medical conditions

See diseases.

medical school

Lowercase when referring to the University's School of Medicine and Dentistry on second refernce.

She graduated from the School of Medicine and Dentistry in 1999. During her time at the medical school, she became interested in patients' rights.
Medieval House

Student residence located on the River Campus in the Fraternity Quad.

Meliora

University motto; commonly translated from the Latin as "ever better." Always capitalized; do not set in italics.

Meliora, The

Dining facility (formerly known as the Faculty Club) located inside the Frederick Douglass Building on the River Campus.

Meliora Hall

Located on the River Campus. Office of the Bursar; Office of Student Financial Assistance; College Career Center; Departments of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and Clinical and Social Psychology; Center for Visual Science; River Campus Copy Center; administrative offices; and general classroom facilities.

Meliora Weekend

Always capitalize the name of the event.

Memorial Art Gallery

Always capitalized. May be referred to as "the art gallery" when the context is clear. Avoid the abbreviation MAG in running text.

military titles

When a civil or military title is used before a last name, it should be spelled out. With full names, the title should be abbreviated. Do not use title on second reference, except in quoted material.

Gen. Tommy Franks
Gen. Tommy Franks is leading the mission. Franks described the situation as "tense," but his aide explained, "If there is a man for this task, it's General Franks."
money

Use figures for sums of money, except when they begin a sentence. They are usually treated as singular.

$4; $450; $4 million; 7 cents
The city was advanced a $4.3 million loan.
Fifty thousand dollars was cut from the budget.
About $50 million was stolen.
months

Do not abbreviate the months of the year in running text.

See dates.

Morey Hall

Located on the River Campus. Departments of English and Art and Art History; Frederick Douglass Institute for African and African-American Studies; Department of Naval Science; Office of Dean of Students; Office of Minority Student Affairs; Higher Education Opportunity Program; and International Student Office.

movies

Use italics for the titles of movies.

Gone with the Wind is still my favorite movie.
Mr., Mrs., Ms., Miss

See honorific titles.

Mt. Hope Campus

Always capitalized. Always abbreviated Mt.

Mt. Hope Family Center
Mt. Hope Professional Building

Located at the Medical Center.

Morgan Hall

Residence hall located in the Susan B. Anthony Halls on the River Campus.

Munro House

Residence hall located on the River Campus in Hill Court.

musical compositions

Use italics for most musical composition titles. Individual pop song titles are set in roman type with quotation marks.

The quartet played Canzona per Sonare No. 4 for the graduate procession.
The group had their first top 10 hit with "Do You Believe in Magic?".
multi( )

Combines solid except before a capitalized word or the letter "i."

multipurpose; multi-institutional
N
named chairs

See endowed chairs.

nation, national

Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

National Society of Black Engineers
the national government
New York

In running text, spell out the name of the state when it appears alone; abbreviate as N.Y. when it appears in conjunction with a city.

He just moved to New York.
He just moved to Geneseo, N.Y.

In complete postal addresses, abbreviate as NY.

When there is a confusion as to whether the state or the city is meant, write New York State or New York City. Do not overuse this construction; the context of the sentence should make it clear which is meant.

See states.

New York State Center for Advanced Technology

Located on the River Campus.

newsletters

Use italics for the names of newsletters.

Nobel Prize
Noble Prize
Nobel Prize–winning author
Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Prize in literature
Nobel Prizes
none

When referring to a abstract quantity that is taken as a whole, use a singular verb.

None of the music selected was appropriate for the occasion.

When referring to items that can be counted, use a plural verb.

None of the cars were damaged in the accident.
north

See compass directions.

numbers

Numbers between one and nine should be spelled out in text.

Of the seven children in the group, four were girls.

Numbers 10 and above should be figures in text.

There were 12 representatives at the meeting.

However, within a sentence or paragraph, numbers in the same category should be treated alike. If numerals are used for one of the numbers, all numerals should be used for consistency sake.

There are 20 graduate students in the biology department, 5 in philosophy, and 17 in mathematics.

At the beginning of a sentence, ALL numbers are spelled out.

Five years from now, the project will be complete.

All the above rules also apply to ordinal numbers.

This is the third time I've told you.
He walked the stairs to the 12th floor.

Do not write the date as an ordinal number.

December 7, NOT December 7th

In most numbers of one thousand or more, commas should be used between groups of three digits.

1,000
32,987
5,513,654

The number preceding the word "percent" or the symbol "%" is always a figure. Avoid the use of the percent sign in running text.

Of the people in attendance, 23 percent were under the age of 18.
The figures showed a 3 percent increase over last year.
nursing school

Lowercase when referring to the University's School of Nursing on second reference.

She graduated from the School of Nursing.
She graduated from the nursing school.
O
office

Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

Office of Technology Transfer
A new office for incoming students will be established in the fall.
OK, okay

Either spelling can be used in informal copy; do not use in news releases or hard news stories.

Omega laser

The world's most powerful ultraviolet laser; housed at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

online

Write solid when referring to computer connections.

She went online to check her e-mail.
He created an online version of his chemistry project.
only

Generally, "only" should be placed as close as possible to the word it modifies. Changing its placement in a sentence can change the meaning of the sentence:

Only I pushed the new car yesterday.
I only pushed the new car yesterday.
I pushed only the new car yesterday.
I pushed the only new car yesterday.
I pushed the new car only yesterday.
I pushed the new car yesterday only.
operas

Use italics for opera titles.

La Bohème
P
p.m.

See time.

paintings

Titles of all works of art (paintings, drawings, photographs, statues) should be set in roman type with quotation marks.

Edvard Munch's masterpiece "The Scream" was stolen from a museum.
pamphlets

Use italics for pamphlet titles.

parentheses ()

Put periods outside a parenthesis at the end of a sentence if the inserted text is part of a larger sentence, and inside if the inserted text stands independently.

President Jackson addressed the graduates (text on page 78).
All of the scholarship winners were honored at the dinner. (A complete list appears in the event program.)

When a parenthetical sentence is included in another sentence, omit the period inside the parentheses.

The baseball game (she had been listening to it on the radio) was now in extra innings.

Put caption directions in parentheses, unless the direction is the first word in the sentence.

Provost Charles Phelps (left) presents the award to Jane Doe.
Left, Phelps speaks to the freshman class.

The closing parenthesis goes inside the closing quotation mark when the parenthetical element is part of the quotation.

She wrote, "We can meet on Friday (May 1)," although she had no intention of joining the group.

The closing parenthesis goes outside the closing quotation mark when the quotation is part of the parenthetical element.

Joe (also known as "funny boy") was the life of the party.
passive voice

See active voice.

Patrick Barry House

Located on Mt. Hope Campus.

PC

Acceptable for both personal computer and political correctness when the context is clear.

percent

Percent should be spelled out in text. The number preceding the word "percent" should always be a figure.

They gave 3 percent of their earnings to charity.

The % sign can be used in charts and tables. Avoid using the % sign in running text.

period (.)

Use a single space following a period at the end of a sentence.

He isn't here. He went to the movies.

When using a period (or "dot") in e-mail or Web addresses, do not follow with a space.

The University's Web page can be found at www.rochester.edu.
periodicals

Use italics for titles of all periodicals and journals.

See publications.

Peter Barry House

Located on Mt. Hope Campus.

phase, faze, Phase

See faze, phase, Phase.

Ph.D.

See academic degrees.

phone numbers

In general publications, when using University phone numbers in running text, use the complete phone number including area code (585). For internal publications, like Currents, the use of University extensions (x5-5277) is acceptable.

place names

See geographic terms.

planets

See heavenly bodies.

plays

Use italics for titles of plays.

We saw Much Ado About Nothing at the Shakespeare Festival.
plurals

CAPITALIZED TERMS: Lowercase the generic word when it is last.

Yale and Harvard universities
the Universities of Michigan and California

FIGURES: Add "s."

1940s, B-52s

LETTERS: Add "s" to multiple letters.

ABCs, PACs, HMOs, Ph.D.s, M.A.s

Add "'s" to single letters.

She got all A's this semester.

PROPER NAMES: When a name ends in a sibilant, add "es."

the Joneses, the Cashes

Otherwise, add "s."

the two Marys; the two Germanys
BUT the Rockies; the Alleghenies
poems

Use italics for titles of poems.

Edgar Allen Poe's Annabel Lee features haunting imagery.
postal addresses

See addresses and ZIP codes.

postdoctoral
postgraduate
pre( )

Combines solid when used as a prefix except before a capitalized word or the letter e.

predawn patrol; pre-existing conditions
pre-judicial hearing [before a judicial hearing]; prejudicial practices [causing prejudice]; preeminent [pre is not a prefix in this case]
premier, premiere

Premier, as a noun, means the chief official, as in government.

The French premier campaigned vigorously in favor of the referendum.

As an adjective, premier means first in distinction or foremost.

She was the premier soprano of her day.

Premiere is a noun meaning the first performance.

The movie premiere was attended by all the Hollywood elite.
president

Capitalize as part of a full official name, or when used as a title before a name; lowercase otherwise.

Office of the President; President Thomas H. Jackson
Thomas H. Jackson is the University's ninth president.
professor

See faculty.

provost

Capitalize as part of a full official name, or when used as a title before a name; lowercase otherwise.

Office of the Provost
Thomas LeBlanc, vice provost
Charles Phelps is the University's ninth provost.
publications

The following types of publication titles should be in italics:

newspapersbooks
magazinesmovies
pamphletsoperas
proceedings and collectionsoratorios
periodicalsmusical compositions
poemsplays
TV seriesart exhibitions
ships, spacecraft, aircraft
(but not the abbreviations: SS, USS, HMS, etc.)

Titles of the following publications should be roman type in quotation marks:

features (newspapers)manuscripts in collection
chapter titleslectures and papers
short storiesepisodes of TV and radio programs
essaysindividual pop songs
articlesshort compositions
dissertations and thesesworks of art

In publication titles, all words are capitalized except articles (a, an, the), conjunctions (and, but, or), and prepositions (of, in, on, etc.). The to in infinitives is also lowercase.

Death of a Salesman
"Midnight Train to Georgia"
Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize–winning author
Pulitzer Prize in history
Pulitzer Prizes
Q
question mark (?)

The question park is used to mark a direct question. An indirect question never takes a question mark.

How are we going to resolve this matter?
He wondered how they were going to resolve the matter.

A question mark should be placed inside quotation markes only when the question is part of the quoted material.

He asked, "How long have you worked here?"
Couldn't she just say, "Nice job"?
quotation marks

The University uses the American style of punctuation with quotation marks.

COMMAS AND PERIODS: Commas and periods always go inside the closing quotation mark (single or double).

He marked the package "Fragile," but that meant nothing to the delivery crew.
She said, "Would you please repeat that."
Sign your name wherever you see an "X."
She said, "Mark all the orders 'Rush.' "

SEMICOLONS AND COLONS: Semicolons and colons always go outside the closing quotation mark (single or double).

You said, "The check is in the mail"; however, I have not yet received it.

QUESTION MARKS AND EXCLAMATION POINTS: Question marks and exclamation points go inside the closing quotation mark when it applies only to the quoted material.

He asked, "How long have you worked here?"
Couldn't she just say, "Nice job"?

PARENTHESES: The closing parenthesis goes inside the closing quotation mark when the parenthetical element is part of the quotation.

She wrote, "We can meet on Friday (May 1)," although she had no intentions of joining the group.

The closing parenthesis goes outside the closing quotation mark when the quotation is part of the parenthetical element.

Joe (also known as "funny boy") was the life of the party.

If the quoted material consists of two or more paragraphs, place an opening quotation mark in front of each paragraph. However, place the closing quotation mark at the end of the last paragraph only.

Titles of the following publications should be roman type in quotation marks:

features (newspapers)manuscripts in collection
chapter titleslectures and papers
short storiesepisodes of TV and radio programs
essaysindividual pop songs
articlesshort compositions
dissertations and thesesworks of art
R
re( )

Combines solid except before the letter "e" or a capitalization, or in confusing combinations.

regenerate; re-evaluate
re-create (to create again, as opposed to recreate, meaning to relax)
resume, resumé

"Resume" is a verb meaning to return to or to begin again. "Resumé" is a noun meaning a summary of one's work and education experiences.

River Campus

Always capitalized. In running text, precede with "the."

The building is located on the River Campus.

The River Campus is a geographic designation. Do not confuse with the College; the River Campus is home to the College, the Simon School, and the Warner School.

River Road Complex

Located on the South Campus. Comprises River Road Laboratory and River Road Residence, a residence hall for graduate students.

Robert B. Goergen Athletic Center

May be shortened to Goergen Center on second reference.

Located on the River Campus. Edmund A. Hajim Alumni Gymnasium, offices of Athletics and Recreation, multipurpose rooms, fitness center, weight rooms; Alexander Palestra, home site for University intercollegiate basketball and volleyball, with permanent seating for 2,200; Field House, with 12,000-square-foot indoor playing surface covered by artificial turf, with one-eighth-mile running track around the perimeter; Speegle-Wilbraham Aquatic Center; four indoor tennis courts, and three recreational basketball courts; Squash and Racquetball Center with five international-size squash courts and two racquetball courts.

Rochester

May be used to refer to the University of Rochester, if the context is clear.

He graduated from Rochester in 1989.
The event is open to all Rochester students.
Rush Rhees Library

Located on the River Campus. Departments of History and Religion and Classics, and the Film Studies program; Multidisciplinary Language Lab; principal library for the River Campus.

S
Sage Art Center

Located on the River Campus. Teaching and studio facilities for visual arts programs.

SAT

Scholastic Assessment Tests. May be abbreviated on first reference when the context is clear.

Her SAT scores were very impressive.
Schlegel Hall

Located on the River Campus. William E. Simon Graduate School of Business Administration's M.B.A. programs, Computing Center, Career Services, Executive Development Program, and classrooms.

scholar

Lowercase.

Rhodes scholar
scholarly papers

Use roman type in quotation marks.

See publications.

scholarly journals

See journals.

scholarship

Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

Fulbright Scholarship
He received a full scholarship.
school

Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

School of Nursing
medical school
School of Medicine and Dentistry

Capitalize when complete official name is used. Do not capitalize references to "the medical school." Do not abbreviate as SMD in formal writing.

School of Nursing

Capitalize when complete official name is used. Do not capitalize references to "the nursing school."

school subjects

Capitalize names of specific courses and proper nouns; lowercase otherwise.

He signed up for Fundamentals of Biology.
She plans to major in biology.
The documentary series examined the last 200 years of English history.

See courses.

scientific names

Capitalize the genus name, lowercase the species name, and italicize both.

Home sapiens; Canis lupus

English derivations and nontechnical uses recognized by the Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary may be set in roman type, lowercase.

amoebas
screensaver
seasons

The seasons of the year are lowercase.

We will begin in the spring.
The program ended in winter 1996.
He is enrolled for the fall semester.
semester

Semesters are lowercase.

I want to graduate this semester.
The fall semester begins in late August.
semi()

Combines solid except before a capital letter of the letter i.

semicircle; semi-involved
semiannual

Twice a year. May also use biannual.

semicolon

Semicolons can be used in compound sentences.

I went home; he went to the party.

Divisions between phrases that already have commas should be made with a semicolon.

They went hiking in Montana, North Dakota, and Idaho; skiing in California and Colorado; and sailing in Washington and Oregon.

Semicolons and colons always go outside the closing quotation mark (single or double).

You said, "The check is in the mail"; however, I have not yet received it.
semimonthly

Twice a month. For once every two months, use bimonthly.

semiweekly

Twice a week. For once every two weeks, use biweekly.

ships

Names of ships are in italics, but not the abbreviations: SS, USS, HMS, etc.

The president landed on the deck of the USS Abraham Lincoln.
Simon School

Can be used for William E. Simon Graduate School of Business Administration on second reference. Other variations and combinations are discouraged.

Slater House

Residence hall located on the River Campus in Hill Court.

society

Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

software, names of

See computer programs

song titles

See musical compositions.

south

See compass directions

South Campus

Located to the southwest of the River Campus and the Medical Center. Comprises the University Park, Whipple Park and River Road residence complexes, the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, and the Center for Optoelectronics and Imaging. In running text, precede with a "the."

The building is located on the South Campus.
spacecraft

Names of spacecraft are in italics.

A team of scientists will lead the investigation into the Columbia disaster.
spelling

Use this style guide as your first reference for treatment and spelling of individual words. As a second resource, Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary is preferred. Whichever dictionary you use as a spelling resource, be sure to use it consistently throughout your publication.

spring

See seasons.

Spurrier Hall

Located on the River Campus. Dance studio and music rooms; Employee Assistance Program.

start-up (noun and adjective)
His start-up went bust when the Internet economy collapsed.
states

In general University style, use the traditional abbreviations for states when they appear in conjunction with a city, and spell out when they stand alone.

He lives in Pennsylvania, but plans to move to Tacoma, Wash.
Traditional state abbreviations
STATE NAMEABBREVIATION
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Ala.
none
Ariz.
Ark.
Calif.
Colo.
Conn.
Del.
D.C.
Fla.
Ga.
none
none
Ill.
Ind.
none
Kan.
Ky.
La.
none
Md.
Mass.
Mich.
Minn.
Miss.
Mo.
Mont.
Neb.
Nev.
N.H.
N.J.
N.M.
N.Y.
N.C.
N.D.
none
Okla.
Ore.
Pa.
R.I.
S.C.
S.D.
Tenn.
none
none
Vt.
Va.
Wash.
W.Va.
Wis.
Wyo.
statues

Titles of all works of art (paintings, drawings, photographs, statues) should be in roman type with quotation marks.

Strong Auditorium

Located on the River Campus. Two halls, seating 1,000 and 400, used for lectures, films, stage productions, and concerts.

Strong Health

Network of hospitals, clinics, and health care providers affiliated with the University. Only use when referring to the network as a whole.

Strong Memorial Hospital

Located on the Medical Center campus, Strong Memorial Hospital is the main clinical component for the Strong Health network and for clinical education at the School of Medicine and Dentistry and the School of Nursing. Can be referred to as Strong on second reference. Do not abbreviate as SMH in formal writing.

summer

See seasons.

Supplies and Accounts Building

Located in the Medical Center.

symposium

Symposium is singular; symposia is plural. Capitalize when part of a full, formal name; lowercase otherwise.

T
Taylor Hall

Located on the River Campus. Academic Technology Services terminal facility; Center for Electronic Imaging Systems.

teenager (noun); teenaged (adjective)
television

Names of television series are in italics.

Friends; Seinfeld

Use roman type in quotation marks for individual episode titles and individual programs.

My favorite Friends episode is "The One with Phoebe's Husband."
Professor John Allen's work was featured on the PBS special "American HIstory Revisted."
telephone numbers

See phone numbers.

that, which

Descriptive (nonrestrictive) clauses are set off by commas and take a "which."

The musical, which was performed by the student drama club, was sold out on its opening night

Defining (restrictive) clauses are not set off by commas and usually take a "that."

The musical that debuted last night will run for at least two weeks.
theater

Use this spelling for general references to theaters or the theater.

He planned to rent a theater for the drama workshop.
She is hoping to make a career in the theater.

Use the "theatre" spelling if that is the name of a particular theater.

Eastman Theatre; International Theater of the Arts
their, there, they're

"Their" is a plural possessive pronoun.

I really admired their work on the project.

"There" is an adverb meaning at or in that place.

Put it over there on the table.

"They're" is the contraction of "they are."

We are going to the movies, but they're going bowling instead.
then

When used to mean "former," do not hyphenate.

The then CEO was charged in the scandal, along with the current board of directors.
thesis

Use roman type in quotation marks for the titles of dissertations and theses.

The plural of thesis is theses.

Students must complete a thesis to finish the program.
The theses were stacked on the library shelf.
Tiernan Hall

Located on the River Campus in the Residence Quad.

time

Use figures for clock time and for hours, minutes, seconds, days, weeks, months and years greater than nine.

3 p.m.; 5:30 a.m.; 6 o'clock; 18 years

Spell out for nine or less, except when a fraction is connected to a whole number or in combination with figures above nine.

She is nine years old.
She lived there for nine years.
The movie lasted three hours.
The movie lasted 2 1/2 hours.
The senator spoke for 2 days and 13 hours.

Avoid such redundancies as 10 o'clock p.m. and 12 noon. Midnight is the end of the day, not the beginning. Do not use 12 a.m. or 12 p.m.. Write noon or midnight.

See age.

titles

See administrative titles, publications.

Todd Union

Located on the River Campus. Noteworthy as one of the first student unions in the United States, essentially replaced by Wilson Commons. Houses the offices of the College's Department of Music, the International Theatre Program, the Campus Postal Unit, a bank, Todd Theater, and the student-run campus radio station, WRUR-AM and FM.

toward

Not "towards."

She drove toward Buffalo.
Towne House

Located at the Medical Center. East Wing—Human Resources; Clinical Practice Evaluation; Security; Planning and Project Management; University Audit. Center—Residence Hall; Neurology Clinical Trials Coordination Center; Counseling & Mental Health Services; Finance. West Wing—University Computing & Systems Center; Telecommunications.

trustees

Capitalize trustee when it appears before a name.

Mary Brown, trustee since 1994
Trustee Mary Brown

See Board of Trustees

U
University Athletic Association

Athletic association of which the University is a member. May be abbreviated UAA on second reference.

University Information Technology

May be abbreviated as University IT on second reference.

University of Rochester

The University of Rochester comprises the College (arts, sciences, and engineering), the Eastman School of Music, the School of Medicine and Dentistry, the School of Nursing, the William E. Simon Graduate School of Business Administration, the Margaret Warner Graduate School of Education and Human Development, and the Memorial Art Gallery

When "the" precedes "University of Rochester" or "University" in running text, it is not capitalized.

"University," when referring to the University of Rochester, is always capitalized.

"Rochester" may be used to refer to the University of Rochester when the meaning is clear.

Do not use the abbreviation UR or U of R to refer to the University in formal writing.

See UR.

University of Rochester Medical Center

See Medical Center.

University Park

Student residence located on the South Campus.

upstate (noun and adj.)
The campus is located in upstate New York.
He had always lived upstate before moving to Brooklyn, N.Y.
UR

Do not use an an abbreviation for the University in general publications. A few exceptions for graphic reasons or as a play on words have been sanctioned.

See University of Rochester.

URL

Universal Resource Locator. Synonymous with Web address. Always abbreviated.

See addresses.

U.S.

Use abbreviation as an adjective only. As a noun, spell out United States.

the U.S. government
a citizen of the United States
V
Valentine Tower

Student residence located on the South Campus.

vice president

Capitalize as part of a full official name, or when used as a title before a name; lowercase otherwise.

Office of the Vice President
Vice President and General Secretary Paul Burgett
He was an interim vice president at Brown University.
vice provost

Capitalize as part of a full official name, or when used as a title before a name; lowercase otherwise.

Office of the Vice Provost
Vice Provost and and Chief Information Officer Mely Tynan
The vice provost will address the convention.
W
Wallis Hall

Located on the River Campus. University executive offices; Office of Admissions for the College.

Warner School

Can be used for the Margaret Warner Graduate School of Education and Human Development on second reference. Other variations and combinations should be discouraged.

Web

Always capitalized when referring to the World Wide Web.

We need to put this information up on the Web.
Web cam

Two words. Also, Web camera.

The University's new Web cam has been popular with students and alumni.
Web site

Two words. Also, Web page.

The new Web site is now live at www.rochester.edu/giving.
webcast

One word, lowercase. Can be used as both a noun and a verb.

The Commencement webcast will begin at 9 a.m.
We will be webcasting the College Commencement ceremony.
webmaster

One word, lowercase. Refers to someone who is responsible for creating and maintaining a Web site.

office webmaster Jane Smith
Send an e-mail to the webmaster about that broken link.
west

See compass directions.

western New York
which, that

See that, which.

Whipple Park Apartments

Student residence located on the South Campus.

()wide

Usually combines solid as an adjective, except after a proper noun.

a University-wide poll
the poll was University wide
Stanford conducted a universitywide poll
campuswide poll
Wilder Tower

Residence hall located on the River Campus in Founders Court.

William E. Simon Graduate School of Business Administration

May be shortened to "Simon School" on second reference, but not to simply "Simon." Avoid other constructions of the name.

Wilmot Building

Located on the River Campus. Offices, seminar rooms, and laboratory facilities for the Institute of Optics.

Wilson Commons

Located on the River Campus. The campus center with student organization offices, a recreation center, lounges, meeting and performing facilities, dining services; Office of the Vice President and College Dean of Students: the Common Ground coffeehouse; William H. Stackel Meeting Room; Hartnett Art Gallery; Arthur J. May Multi-Purpose Room; Samuel M. Havens Lounge; Fred Gowen Room; Ruth Merrill Student Organization Center; George Graham Smith Plaza.

winter

See seasons.

wireless
works of art

Titles of all works of art (paintings, drawings, photographs, statues) should be in roman type with quotation marks.

See publications.

X
X-ray
Y
yearlong
The yearlong effort paid off in the end.
years

Use figures.

1964
1964–66
1960s
'60s
the 1800s
March 1968
the year 2000

An academic year straddles two calendar years. Drop the first two digits of the second year and connect with an en dash

2002–03

See age, dates, academic years.

Yellowjackets

Nickname for the University athletic teams. May be used alone if the context is clear.

The Yellowjackets made their first appearance in the playoffs.

'Jackets is also acceptable on second reference.

It was an easy win for the 'Jackets, who scored a season-high 12 runs.

Also the name of a student a cappella group.

Z
ZIP codes

Internal ZIP codes have been set by University Mail Services and box numbers have been issued to all River Campus addresses. Contact Mail Services for a user's guide or check the Web at www.rochester.edu/mailservices/.