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University of Rochester Editorial Style Guide

General guidelines

The editorial style guide is intended as a reference for members of the University community to help ensure accuracy, clarity, and consistency among print and online publications. Reflecting the long-standing practice of University Communications, the guide draws from University history, traditions, and conventions. Grounded in professionally regarded sources such as The Chicago Manual of Style, the guide also reflects the practices of many of Rochester’s peer universities.

The guide is not meant to govern academic publications or everyday internal communications, such as email messages, syllabi, class or department handouts, and other materials. Its purpose is to help members of the University community be consistent in communicating about the University’s mission, achievements, programs, and goals among broader internal and external audiences.

Publications that are produced by the Periodicals and Creative Services units of University Communications follow the style guide.

References

The Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition) is the University’s standard reference for issues of capitalization, punctuation, abbreviation, and most questions of usage. Members of the University community who connect to the Internet through the University’s network can access the Chicago Manual through the University’s library system (http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org). For questions of spelling, word division, and definition, refer to the most recent edition of Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate dictionary.

For editorial issues that are specific to the University, the style guide is intended to serve as a current and accurate reference. If you have questions about specific entries, please contact University Communications.

A Word about Tone

The goal of all communication is to be clear. An important consideration in achieving that is to keep the viewpoint of your audience in mind. Jargon, discipline-specific acronyms, excessive capitalization, and academic conventions often are unclear to general audiences. Because University Communications most often works on publications and presentations geared to a general audience, that’s how we approach questions of style.

We want to be clear, direct, authentic, intelligent, confident, and at times, personal. We try to avoid sounding stilted, authoritarian, and institutional.

A Word about Capitalization

University Communications follows the Chicago Manual’s preference for the “sparing use of capitals.” Known as “down style,” the approach reflects a modern understanding of editorial style in which proper names and adjectives are capitalized, but generic terms are lowercased except when used as part of a formal proper name. The use of down style is also more likely to ensure consistency within and across communications materials.

Questions?

Is it mandatory to follow the style guide? Well, yes and no. Style and usage rules exist to help communicate messages clearly for particular audiences. There will be times when—due to the design or purpose of a publication or to achieve a certain look or feel—it makes sense to deviate judiciously from the style guide. Decorative or formal presentations often need a particular treatment. Signs and banners often have space constraints that need to be factored in when composing materials for those formats. In such situations, keep in mind that consistency is essential to presenting a polished presentation.

Also keep in mind that all style guides are just that, guides. As the Chicago Manual notes, such references are intended to help direct writers in achieving their goals of communicating clearly, but are not intended to be so constricting that they close off all flexibility:

“We have come to understand that even in the case of somewhat arbitrary rules, writers and editors tend to look to this manual for the most efficient, logical, and defensible solution to a given editorial problem. On the other hand, none of our recommendations are meant to foreclose breaking or bending rules to fit a particular case, something we continue to do ourselves. Once again, we have looked to what has become a maxim (from the first edition of the manual in 1906): ‘Rules and regulations such as these, in the nature of the case, cannot be endowed with the fixity of rock-ribbed law. They are meant for the average case, and must be applied with a certain degree of elasticity.’ ”

Contact us with your style questions: styleguide@ur.rochester.edu

University Identity

The University of Rochester

Capitalize “University” when it refers to the University of Rochester.

The use of “Rochester” to refer to the University of Rochester is acceptable when the reference is clear. Compare: “He works at Rochester” to “She lives in Rochester.”

Avoid “U of R,” “UR,” “U of Rochester” except in informal presentations, quoted material, social media, or where the use has been sanctioned. Use the article “the” in referring to the University of Rochester in running text, but the article is not capitalized.

Academic Divisions

Arts, Sciences & Engineering
—the College
—School of Arts & Sciences
—Hajim School of Engineering & Applied Sciences
(Note: Arts, Sciences & Engineering, the School of Arts & Sciences, and the Hajim School of Engineering & Applied Sciences use an ampersand instead of “and” in all instances.)

Eastman School of Music

School of Medicine and Dentistry

School of Nursing

Simon Business School

Warner School of Education

Other Units

Memorial Art Gallery
—Centennial Sculpture Park

Laboratory for Laser Energetics

Campuses

River Campus
—Arts, Sciences & Engineering
—Warner School of Education
—Simon Business School

Medical Center
—School of Medicine and Dentistry
—School of Nursing
—Strong Memorial Hospital
—Golisano Children’s Hospital
—Wilmot Cancer Institute
—Eastman Institute for Oral Health
—UR Medicine
—Faculty Practice Group
—Highland Hospital
—Highlands at Pittsford
—Pluta Cancer Center
—Visiting Nurse Service

South Campus
—Laboratory for Laser Energetics
—Larry and Cindy Bloch Alumni and Advancement Center

Eastman Campus
—Eastman School of Music
—Eastman Theatre
—East Wing
—Messinger Hall
—Eastman Community Music School
—Eastman Commons
—Student Living Center
—Miller Center

The generic terms referring to individual units are not capitalized. For example, School of Medicine and Dentistry, but medical school. Strong Memorial Hospital, but the hospital. Eastman School of Music, but the school. And so on: the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, the department; the Institute of Optics, the institute; the Memorial Art Gallery, the gallery; the Graduate Program in Visual and Cultural Studies, the program; the Rochester Center for Community Leadership, the center.

Nearby Community

—Mount Hope Cemetery (but Mt. Hope Avenue)
—College Town
—Brooks Crossing
—the South Wedge
—the Genesee River
—Genesee Valley Park
—the Greater Rochester Metropolitan Area includes Monroe, Livingston, Ontario, Orleans, Wayne, and Yates counties
—the City of Rochester (when referring to municipally administered functions of the city’s government)
—New York State (when referring to functions administered by state government)

 

^^A^^

Academic degrees
In most editorial uses, lowercase the names of academic degrees, whether in full or as generic terms: bachelor of arts, bachelor of science; master of arts, master of science; doctor of philosophy; bachelor’s, master’s, doctorate, etc. The generic terms “bachelor’s degree” and “master’s degree” are always written with an apostrophe. The names of degrees can be capitalized in formal presentations.

The abbreviations for degrees are written without periods: BA, MA, PhD, DMA, EdD, etc.

In most University publications, the abbreviated title “Dr.” should not be used to indicate a person’s credentials in a field. Many style guides—particularly guides intended for use by the news media—recommend restricting the use of the abbreviation only to those who hold medical degrees, but in an institution such as the University, that can seem like an arbitrary limitation. On the other hand, using Dr. before the name of all who hold medical doctor degrees and doctorates is cumbersome for readers.

University style recommends that in most instances, a person’s credentials can and should be noted within the context of the publication, typically close to the first appearance of the person’s name.

Jennifer Johnson, a cardiothoracic surgeon at Strong Memorial Hospital, performed the procedure.
Arnold Smith, a professor of pediatrics, met the family in the child’s room.
Cynthia Jones, who holds a doctorate in toxicology, read the results.
Don James, a professor of physics, and his team are studying the origins of black holes.

On subsequent references in most editorial contexts, people should be referred to by their surnames without an honorific title. (Phrases such as “Dr. Jones” or “Professor Smith” should be limited to material directly quoted from a speaker or from another source.)

When the listing of academic credentials with a person’s name is standard practice (for example, in official bulletins of the University), the abbreviations for the credentials should be listed after the name and be set off by commas.

John Jones, PhD, Duke University
Sarah Smith, MPhil, Cambridge University

Plurals of academic degrees do not take an apostrophe.

BAs, BSs, PhDs

academic departments
Names of departments are capitalized only when using the full formal name, or when the department name is the proper name of a nationality, people, or race. (Do not abbreviate to “dept.”)

Department of Biology; the biology department;
Department of English; the English department

Academic areas of study, disciplines, fields, majors, subjects
Academic subjects are not capitalized unless they form part of a department name or an official course name or are themselves proper nouns (for example, English, Latin).
See academic departments.

academic year
An academic year straddles two calendar years. Drop the first two digits of the second year and connect with an en-dash.

2015–16

a cappella

acronyms and initialisms
Use full caps and no periods for acronyms and initialisms, with the exceptions noted in this style guide. In general, do not use acronyms on first reference for University units, organizations, committees, etc. There are some exceptions for nationally known organizations (e.g. FBI, CIA, NASA).

Administration and Finance
Capitalize when referring to offices in the division of the University overseen by the chief financial officer; lowercase in generic use. Do not abbreviate.

Administrative Annex
Located on the South Campus.

administrative titles
Use lowercase unless the title precedes the name.

Joel Seligman, president and CEO of the University; President and CEO Joel Seligman; President Seligman
Matthew Burns, dean of students; Dean of Students Matthew Burns; Dean Burns

admissions
Admissions is always plural when referring to the Office of Admissions and Financial Aid. Capitalize as part of the full, official name; lowercase otherwise. (Note: each academic unit of the University has its own admissions office. Be clear as to which office you are referring. There is no “University” admissions office.)

African-American (adjective), African American (noun)

Alexander Palestra
Located inside Goergen Athletic Center on the River Campus. Home site for University intercollegiate basketball and volleyball, with permanent seating for 2,200. Palestra is acceptable on first reference.

alumni, alumna, alumnus
Alumni and alumnus are the preferred plural and singular terms of alumni of any gender. The feminine terms—alumna (singular) and alumnae (plural)—may be used in the context of the publication or the preferences of the subjects. Do not shorten to “alum” or “alums” except in informal communications.

When referring to an alumnus in text, include the last two digits of his or her class year after the name and preceded by an apostrophe.

Jennifer Jones Johnson ’55 attended the event with her daughters.

When discussing an alumnus with multiple degrees from the University, list the degrees in the order in which they were received, with abbreviations following the graduate degrees.

John Smith ’90, ’98S (MBA).

When referring to a couple who are both alumni, use the following construction:

Jim ’70 and Lisa Smith Johnson ’70

For details about class year designations, see the entry for class years.

Ambulatory Care Center
Located in the Medical Center.

ampersand
Do not replace the conjunction “and” with an ampersand in text, unless the ampersand is used in an official name.

Bausch & Lomb Hall

Ampersands can be used in decorative headings in print and web publications.

Anderson Tower
Residence hall located in Jackson Court on the River Campus.

Arthur Kornberg Medical Research Building
Located at the Medical Center. Kornberg Building is acceptable on second reference or in communications where the context is clear.

Arts, Sciences & Engineering
The academic unit comprises undergraduate and graduate programs. Its units include the College (the academic and cocurricular programs for undergraduates), the Hajim School of Engineering & Applied Sciences, and the School of Arts & Sciences.

Note: do not refer to Arts, Sciences & Engineering as “the College of Arts, Sciences & Engineering.” Do not abbreviate as AS&E in formal writing. While most of the unit’s programs are on the River Campus, do not use “Arts, Sciences & Engineering” as synonymous with “the River Campus.”

^^B^^

bookstore
The University is served by two bookstores. The Barnes & Noble bookstore located at College Town serves the River Campus and the Medical Center. The Eastman School bookstore is located in Miller Center at the Eastman School. Both stores are operated by Barnes & Noble under an agreement administered by Administration and Finance.

Bausch & Lomb Hall
Academic building located on the River Campus. Use the ampersand.

black
Acceptable as reference to an African-American individual or the study of the experience of African Americans in United States history, but take the personal preference of the individual being described into account. (Only use ethnic or racial distinctions when the references are germane to the purpose of the story.)

Bloch Center
Acceptable as a reference to the Larry and Cindy Bloch Alumni and Advancement Center when the context and reference are clear.

Board of Trustees
Capitalize the complete, formal name when referring to the governing body of the University; lowercase otherwise. A list of trustees can be found here.

The Board of Trustees; the trustees; the board
Capitalize “trustee” when it appears before a name when referring to trustees of the University.
Mary Brown, a trustee since 1994; University Trustee Mary Brown

buildings
Capitalize building names. See individual entries for how to refer to them. In most editorial uses, it’s acceptable to omit words like “hall,” “building,” and other descriptions when the context and references are clear.

Burton Hall
Residence hall located on the River Campus.

^^C^^

campuses
Capitalize when used in conjunction with a specific campus name; lowercase otherwise. Note: references to campuses are geographic designations rather than descriptions of academic programs. The River Campus, for example, is home to three major academic units.

Carol G. Simon Hall
Located on the River Campus; administrative, faculty, and PhD offices of the Simon Business School

Centennial Sculpture Park
The outdoor sculpture park is located at the Memorial Art Gallery.

Center for Optoelectronics and Imaging
Located on the South Campus.

Central Utilities Plant
Located on the River Campus.

chair
For internal offices, chair is generally preferred.

chairman, chairwoman, chairperson
For external offices, defer to the preference of the office holder and the organization under discussion, otherwise use “chair.”

Chambers House
Residence hall located in Hill Court on the River Campus.

class years
Current practice (2015) calls for identifying the class years of alumni and students with a two-digit reference to the class to which they belong, followed by an initial indicating the school from which they received (or will receive) their degree if it’s from any unit other than Arts, Sciences & Engineering. Use an apostrophe (not an open single quote mark) to indicate that the first two numbers representing the century of the full class year have been elided.

References to a class year are not set off by commas, but use a comma to separate multiple class years and degree references.

For alumni publications, include the maiden name of alumnae who married after graduation to help identify graduates by the name with which they were known as students. For students who attended the University under their married names—for example, graduate students—including maiden names is unnecessary. Maiden names are not set off with parentheses or other typographical formatting.

Use parentheses to set off nicknames for alumni and students if it’s appropriate to indicate the informal name. In many circumstances, it’s acceptable to use a nickname or a more familiar version of a first name on first reference, but defer to the preferences of the person being referred to.

Except in formal presentations or where clarity requires it, avoid the use of middle initials when writing about members of the University community.

For those with more than one degree, list the degrees in the order that they were received, beginning with the earliest and ending with the most recent. For references to postbaccalaureate degrees, enclose the abbreviation for degrees in parentheses.

For those who have received terminal degrees (PhDs, DMAs, EdDs, etc.), an intervening master’s degree can be omitted if it was part of the coursework toward the terminal degree.

For units who are communicating with their own constituencies, using the initial to indicate an academic unit is often unnecessary.

Undergraduate

Arts, Sciences & Engineering
bachelor’s degree: ’55

Barry Meyer ’64 is the former chairman of Warner Brothers Studio.
Ed Hajim ’58 chairs the University’s Board of Trustees.
Patricia Wager Wheeler ’62, ’65W (Mas) is the author of Successful Tails: The Wonders of Therapy Dogs.

Eastman School of Music
bachelor’s degree: ’55E

Jeff Beal ’85E is an Emmy Award–winning composer.
Alexander (Sandy) Courage ’41E composed the opening theme for Star Trek.
Alice Pillischer Kujala ’48E taught violin for many years after graduation.

School of Nursing
bachelor’s degree: ’55N

Connie Lynn Leary ’59N is a nurse and nursing educator who taught at the Rochester School of Practical Nursing until her retirement in 1996.

Graduate

Arts, Sciences & Engineering
master’s: ’55 (MS), ’55 (MA), ’55 (Mas)

the late Galway Kinnell ’49 won the Pulitzer Prize for poetry.

doctorate: ’55 (PhD)

Wayne Knox ’79, ’84 (PhD) is a former director of the University’s Institute of Optics.

Eastman School of Music
master’s: ’55E (MM) ’55E (MA), ’55E (Mas)

Kate Light ’80E, ’82E (MM) is a violinist and writer.
Zeneba Bowers ’96E (MM) is a violinist, founder, and the artistic director of Alias Chamber Ensemble, based in Nashville, Tennessee.

doctorate: ’55E (PhD), ’55E (DMA)

Katharine Smithrim ’93E (PhD) is a professor of education at Queens University in Kingston, Ontario.
Kevin Puts ’99E (DMA) won the Pulitzer Prize in 2012 for his first opera, Silent Night.

School of Medicine and Dentistry
MD: ’55M (MD)

Frederick Parker Jr. ’58, ’62M (MD) is a professor emeritus and former chair of surgery at SUNY Upstate Medical University.
Trustee Paul Griner ’59M (MD) is a professor emeritus at the School of Medicine and Dentistry, where he also served as general director and CEO of Strong Memorial Hospital.

residency: ’55M (Res)

David Satcher ’72M (Res), is the former surgeon general of the United States.

master’s: ’55M (MS), ’55M (MA), ’55M (MPH)

Robert Scala ’56M (MS), ’58M (PhD) is the former senior scientific advisor of Exxon Biomedical Sciences Corp.
Stephen Cook ’07M (MPH) is an assistant professor of pediatrics at the School of Medicine.

doctorate: ’55M (PhD)

Bradford Berk ’81M (MD/PhD) served as CEO of the Medical Center.

 

Eastman Institute for Oral Health
postdoctoral certificate: ’55D (Pdc)

Jack Howitt ’56, ’62D (Pdc) is the founder and CEO of Midland Management, a real estate management firm.

 

School of Nursing
master’s: ’55N (MS)

doctorate: ’55N (PhD), ’55N (DNP)

Patricia Stone ’97N (PhD) is a professor of nursing at Columbia University, where she directs the Center for Health Policy and the doctoral program.

Simon Business School
master’s: ’55S (MBA), ’55S (MS)

Martin Stern ’79, ’80S (MBA) is a partner at K&L Gates, an international law firm with offices throughout the United States, Europe, and Asia.

doctorate: ’55S (PhD)

Marlene Puffer ’93S (PhD) is senior vice president of PIMCO Canada as a senior vice president.

Warner School of Education
master’s: ’55W (MA), ’55W (MS), ’55W (MAT)

Bakari Kitwana ’88, ’90W (MA), ’90W (MAT) is a leading scholar of hip-hop music.

doctorate: ’55W (EdD), ’55W (PhD)

Kathy Rideout ’95W (EdD) is dean of the University’s School of Nursing.

Honorary degrees
Note: only the University can award honorary degrees. The honors are not bestowed by individual academic units so should not be used with an initial to indicate a school.

’55 (Honorary)

Arthur Miller ’56, ’08 (Honorary) is a law professor at NYU.
Steven Chu ’70, ’97 (Honorary) is a former secretary of the Department of Energy.
Renee Fleming ’83E (MM), ’11 (Honorary) is a Grammy Award–winning soprano.
Ron Carter ’59E, ’10 (Honorary) is a Grammy Award–winning bassist.

Current Students

College

Jane Student ’15

Eastman undergraduates

John Student ’15E

Master’s and doctoral degrees
Refer to graduate students by the program and academic unit in which they are studying.

Jane Graduate Student is a doctoral student in the physics department.
John Graduate Student is working toward a master’s degree in economics.
Jane Graduate Student is a doctoral student in composition at the Eastman School.
John Graduate Student has enrolled in the MBA program at the Simon School.

Note: for references to class years from a previous century, it’s often preferable to include the full year. In such formulations, the word “class” is capitalized.

Francis Bellamy, Class of 1876, is credited with writing the Pledge of Allegiance.

coed
May be used as an adjective as an abbreviation of coeducational, meaning the education of both sexes at the same institution. Do NOT use as a noun to refer to a female student.

the College
Capitalize “College” when referring to the principal undergraduate unit of Arts, Sciences & Engineering. When used in text, lowercase “the” and capitalize “College.” Use of “the College” is acceptable on first reference in most materials.

colleges and schools
The University comprises six major academic units that include seven schools: Arts, Sciences & Engineering; the Eastman School of Music; the School of Medicine and Dentistry; the School of Nursing; Simon Business School; and the Warner School of Education.

Arts, Sciences & Engineering comprises three units: the College, the Hajim School of Engineering & Applied Sciences, and the School of Arts & Sciences.

College Town
The commercial development at the corner of Mt. Hope and Elmwood avenues is home to a Barnes & Noble bookstore that serves as the bookstore for the River Campus and the Medical Center. It also houses residential, dining, and retail businesses, as well as some University offices. While built on University-owned land, College Town is not owned by the University.

comma
University style uses the comma preceding the “and” in a series, also known as the serial comma or the Oxford comma.

Please check all copy for spelling, grammar, and consistency of style.

commencement
Capitalize when referring to a University graduation exercise. Note: each unit of the University has its own commencement exercises. There is no “University Commencement.”

Computer Studies Building
Academic building located on the River Campus.

Crosby Hall
Residence hall located on the River Campus.

^^D^^

Danforth Dining Center
Dining hall located in the Susan B. Anthony Halls on the River Campus. The center includes Danforth Fresh Food Company, a residential restaurant that features made-to-order meals.

data
Treat “data” as a plural noun and combine it with a plural verb when referring to the research meaning of the word.

dates
Follow the guidelines in the Chicago Manual.

A few general guidelines include:

The names of days and months are capitalized and are spelled out in full in most editorial uses. When the month, day, and year are included, the year is set off with commas. In combinations with more than two date elements, commas are used to set off each element.

The final exam will be held Wednesday, December 15.
The New Year’s Day party is Friday, January 1, 2016.

On February 15, 1851, the University’s charter was approved.
The semester begins in September 2015.
Students need to register by August 15.
We moved in on Saturday.

Use cardinal numbers for dates even though they may be pronounced as ordinals. In constructions where a number is written out, use ordinals.

She’ll be here on the ninth.

In most editorial uses, if the date refers to the current year, the inclusion of the year isn’t necessary.

Meliora Weekend will be held in October.
She doesn’t plan to start taking classes until the spring semester begins on January 18, 2016.

de Kiewiet Tower
Residence hall located on the South Campus.

Del Monte Neuromedicine Institute
Located at the Medical Center.

department
See academic departments

Dewey Hall
Academic building located on the River Campus.

division
Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

doctoral, doctorate
Use doctoral as an adjective and doctorate as a noun.

double major
Hyphenate when used as a verb.

She double-majors in political science and statistics.
She is a double major in political science and statistics.

Douglass Dining Center
Dining hall located in the Frederick Douglass Building.

Douglass Leadership House
Located in the Fraternity Quad on the River Campus, the house is home to programs designed to celebrate and raise awareness of the black experience.

Drama House
Residence hall located in the Fraternity Quad on the River Campus.

^^E^^

earth
Lowercase when referring to dirt or the ground; capitalize when personified or when referring to the planet.

He majors in earth and environmental sciences.
The asteroid narrowly missed hitting Earth.

Eastman Campus
Located in downtown Rochester, the campus includes the Eastman School of Music, Eastman Theatre, Eastman’s East Wing, Messinger Hall, the Eastman Student Living Center, Miller Center, and the Sibley Music Library.

Eastman Dental Center
Located at the Medical Center.

Eastman Institute for Oral Health
Located at the Medical Center.

Eastman School of Music
May be shortened to Eastman on second reference. Do not abbreviate to ESM in formal writing.

Eastman Theatre
Not “Theater.” Located on the Eastman Campus.

Edmund A. Hajim Alumni Gymnasium
Located in the Robert B. Goergen Athletic Center on the River Campus. Offices of Athletics and Recreation, multipurpose rooms, fitness center, weight rooms. May be referred to as Hajim Gym, depending on the context and the audience.

Edmund A. Hajim School of Engineering & Applied Sciences
May be referred to as the Hajim School of Engineering & Applied Sciences or the Hajim School, depending on the context and the audience.

Ellwanger & Barry Building
Located on Mt. Hope Campus. Use the ampersand.

email
Spell without a hyphen in all uses. [Note: this is a departure from the conventions spelled out in the Chicago Manual (7.76).]

em-dash (—)
Em-dashes are used to denote sudden changes in sentence structure. They are also used (instead of commas) to set off an explanation or emphasis.

Joan—despite her brother’s warning—entered the dark building.

The em-dash is often typed as a double hyphen in copy. In printed material, use an em-dash—which has no space on either side. University typographical standards are to add a little “air” on either side of the dash, but not a full space. In web copy, use the HTML character entity <code>&#8212;</code>. Since the em-dash is a more commanding stop than a comma, its overuse is more jarring to readers than the overuse of commas. Use sparingly.

emeritus, emeriti, emerita
Emeritus is an honorary rank bestowed on some retired University faculty. Not every retired faculty member has emeritus status, so do not use the terms interchangeably.

Use the construction “professor emeritus” not “emeritus professor.” The title should be in lowercase after the name; avoid constructions with the title before the name.

John Williams was named professor emeritus of mathematics in 1980.

Emeritus and emeriti are the preferred singular and plural terms of professors of any gender. The feminine term “emerita” may be used given the context of the publication or the preference of the subject.

The Department of History held a banquet to honor its professors emeriti.

en-dash (–)
An en-dash is used to connect continuing or inclusive numbers, replacing the word “to” in dates, times, or reference numbers. It is also used instead of a hyphen in compound adjectives when one or more of the elements consists of more than one word.

1968–72; 10 a.m–11:15 p.m.; pp. 35–45; New York–London flight

An en-dash is half the length of an em-dash and longer than a hyphen. In copy it is usually typed as a hyphen. In web copy, use the HTML character entity <code>&#8211;</code>

endowed chairs
Names of endowed chairs are always capitalized, whether accompanied by a personal name or not. Use the full title on first reference.

Jane Smith, the Mary R. Jones Distinguished Professor of Philosophy
The Burt Wolbach Professor of Pathology will teach the seminar.

^^F^^

faculty
Faculty titles are lowercase unless the title precedes a name.
Henry Jones, a professor of history
Professor of History Henry Jones
Assistant Professor of Neurology Jane Jones
Professor Jones

On subsequent references, faculty members are typically referred to by their surnames without an honorific title. (Phrases such as “Dr. Jones” or “Professor Smith” should be limited to material directly quoted from a speaker or as a form of polite address in specific presentations.)

Do not use the abbreviation “prof.” when referring to faculty

There are several ranks of faculty (assistant, associate, professor), and it’s important to note that they not be used interchangeably. All parts of the title should be capitalized when the full title is used before a faculty member’s name.

Refer to the online directoryfor academic title information.

Names of endowed chairs are always capitalized, whether accompanied by a personal name or not and whether they appear before or after the holder’s name.

Follow the Chicago Manual’s guidelines for descriptive titles, such as “historian,” “economist,” “philosopher,” “biologist,” etc., that often are used in academia (8.29) and for titles in apposition (8.20).

Faculty Club
Part of the Meliora dining facilities in the Frederick Douglass Building.

Fairchild House
Residence hall located in Hill Court on the River Campus.

faze, phase, Phase
“faze” is a verb meaning to disturb or disconcert.
“phase” is a noun meaning a step or part of process, or is a verb meaning to carry out in stages.
“Phase” is a nickname given to the Hill Court residence halls. Avoid its use in formal writing.

Fauver Stadium
Located on the River Campus. 5,000-seat, concrete-and-brick stadium with artificial turf and lights.

fellow
When referring to an academic or societal honor bestowed by scholarly societies and scholarship organizations, lowercase except in formal settings.

a postdoctoral fellow; a research fellow; a Nieman Fellow; a fellow

fellowship
Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

Field House
Located in the Robert B. Goergen Athletic Center on the River Campus. 12,000-square-foot indoor playing surface covered by artificial turf, with one-eighth-mile running track around the perimeter.

First Transit
The chartered transportation service operates a shuttle service across and between campuses for students, faculty, and staff. Note: First Transit operates “shuttles”; the Monroe County’s Regional Transit Service (RTS), which provides communitywide service to campus, operates “buses.”

Ford Wing
An addition to the School of Nursing.

foundation
Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

Frederick Douglass Building
Located on the River Campus. Home to the Paul J. Burgett Intercultural Center and the Meliora (a formal and informal dining area).

^^G^^

Gale House
Residence hall located in Hill Court on the River Campus.

Gannett Hall
Residence hall located in the Susan B. Anthony Halls on the River Campus.

Gates Hall
Residence hall located in the Susan B. Anthony Halls on the River Campus.

Gavett Hall
Academic building located on the River Campus. Offices, classrooms, and laboratories of the Department of Chemical Engineering; office of the Department of Biomedical Engineering; laboratories of the Department of Mechanical Engineering and of the Institute of Optics.

gay (adjective)
May be applied to both men and women as a description of sexual orientation, but take the personal preference of the individual being described into account. (Only refer to sexual orientation when such references are germane to the purpose of the story.)

gender
Consider alternatives to language that emphasizes a person’s sex that implies certain occupations are the exclusive domain of men or women, or that identifies males as an archetype for the human race.

Gilbert Hall
Residence hall located on the River Campus.

GLBTQI
Acceptable as a reference to gay, bisexual, lesbian, transgender, queer, and intersexual, but the acronym should be explained in materials where it may not be immediately clear.

Goler House
Located adjacent to the Medical Center.

Golisano Children’s Hospital
Pediatric health care center located at the Medical Center.

graduate (noun and adjective)
Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

graduate (verb)

She graduated from the University.
She graduated from college.
NOT: She graduated the University. She graduated college. She was graduated from the University.

Graduate Living Center Maisonettes
Graduate student residences located on the South Campus.

Gwen M. Greene Career and Internship Center
Located in Dewey Hall.

^^H^^

Hajim Gym
Acceptable for the Edmund A. Hajim Alumni Gymnasium when the context and the reference are clear.

Hajim School
Acceptable for the Edmund A. Hajim School of Engineeing & Applied Sciences when the context and the reference are clear.

Harkness Hall
Academic building located on the River Campus. Offices of the Departments of Economics and Political Science; Wallis Institute.

he/she
Reword sentences to avoid the awkward construction of “he or she,” “his or her,” or “he/she.”

health care (noun and adjective)

Helen Wood Hall
Home to the School of Nursing. Located at the Medical Center.

Hill Court
Complex of residence halls located on the north end of the River Campus.

Hillside Market
A convenience store located on the first floor of Susan B. Anthony Halls.

Hispanic
Acceptable as a noun or adjective referring to people who trace their ancestry to Latin America, Spain, or Portugal. (Only refer to ethnic or racial distinctions when such references are germane to the purpose of the story.)

Hoeing Hall
Residence hall located on the River Campus.

Hopeman Engineering Building
Academic building located on the River Campus. Offices, classrooms, and laboratories of the Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Mechanical Engineering.

Hoyt Hall
Located on the River Campus. The building houses a 300-seat auditorium for lectures, meetings, films, and conferences.

Hutchison Hall
Academic building located on the River Campus. Departments of Biology, Chemistry, and Earth and Environmental Sciences; a greenhouse complex. Also home to Hubbell Auditorium and Lander Auditorium.

Hylan Building
Academic building located on the River Campus. Departments of Mathematics and Statistics; Office of Research and Project Administration.

hyphen
Follow the guidelines in the Chicago Manual. (The manual’s hyphenation table includes examples of most uses of hyphens.

A few general guidelines include:

  • Nationality combinations: hyphenate most ethnicity combinations when used as an adjective. Do not hyphenate noun combinations. African-American history (exception: Latin American is never hyphenated.)
  • Numbers: from twenty-one to ninety-nine, when spelled out, are hyphenated.
  • Fractions: hyphenate a fraction when it is used as an adjective (e.g., a two-thirds majority). Write as two words when used as a noun (e.g. two thirds of the participants).
  • X-to-Y combinations: 16-to-32-year-olds
  • Invented verbs: Woods three-putted on the ninth green.
  • Suspended hyphens: They climbed the third- and fourth-highest peaks.
  • Prefixes are generally solid. Follow entries for individual words as indicated in Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary.

Institute of Optics
In formal presentations, The Institute of Optics; in running text, the Institute of Optics; on subsequent references, the institute.

Interfaith Chapel

Internet
Follow the Chicago Manual’s conventions (7.76) for references to Internet, the web, and other references to electronic resources.

^^J^^

Jackson Court
A complex comprising O’Brien Hall and Anderson and Wilder residential towers, the court also features a student-oriented gathering space.

^^K^^

Kendrick House
Residence hall located in Hill Court on the River Campus.

Koran
Preferred spelling for the Muslim holy book.

^^L^^

Laboratory for Laser Energetics
Located on the South Campus. LLE is acceptable on second reference. Can also be referred to as “Laser Lab” in informal writing.

Larry and Cindy Bloch Alumni and Advancement Center
Located on the South Campus, the Bloch Center serves as the headquarters for services for alumni, parents, and friends of the University. Bloch Center is acceptable when the context and reference are clear.

Lattimore Hall
Located on the Eastman Quadrangle on the River Campus. Offices of the dean of the College, the dean of the School of Arts & Sciences, and the dean of the Hajim School of Engineering & Applied Sciences; Office of the Registrar; College Center for Advising Services; Orientation Office; Departments of Anthropology, Linguistics, Modern Languages and Cultures, and Philosophy; Susan B. Anthony Institute for Gender and Women’s Studies; American Sign Language Lab; a 153-seat auditorium; classroom and seminar rooms.

Latino, Latina
Latino is the preferred singular term or adjective for someone of any gender. The feminine terms Latina may be used given the context of the publication or the preference of the subject.

LeChase Hall
Home of the Warner School of Education. Acceptable for Raymond F. LeChase Hall when the context and the reference are clear.

lesbian (adjective)
Use as a description of sexual orientation for women, where appropriate. (Only refer to sexual orientation when such references are germane to the purpose of the story.)

library, libraries
Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.
Libraries at the University include the following:

  • River Campus Libraries: Rush Rhees Library, Art and Music Library, Chester F. Carlson Science Library, Koller-Collins Graduate English Center, Laboratory for Laser Energetics Library, Management Library, Multimedia Center, Physics-Optics-Astronomy Library, Rossell Hope Robbins Library, Department of Rare Books, Special Collections, and Preservation
  • Eastman School of Music: Sibley Music Library
  • Medical Center: Edward G. Miner Library
  • Memorial Art Gallery: Charlotte Whitney Allen Library

Lovejoy Hall
Residence hall located on the River Campus.

^^M^^

maiden names
See class years.

Mail Services Building
Located on West Henrietta Road, east of the Medical Center.

Maintenance-Transportation Building
Located on the River Campus.

master’s degrees
The adjectival form is “master’s” in all references.
He has a master’s degree, but she has three master's degrees.

Medical Center
The Medical Center refers to both the geographic and administrative home of the University’s clinical care and research complex. The center comprises the School of Medicine and Dentistry, the School of Nursing, Strong Memorial Hospital, Golisano Children’s Hospital, the Wilmot Cancer Center, the Ambulatory Care Center, the Eastman Dental Center, the Eastman Institute for Oral Health, the Arthur Kornberg Medical Research Building, Helen Wood Hall, Saunders Research Building, and other facilities. Always capitalized. Do not shorten to “Med Center” in formal writing.

Medical Center Annex
Research building located at the Medical Center.

medical school
Lowercase when referring to the University’s School of Medicine and Dentistry on second reference.

Meliora
University motto; commonly translated from the Latin as “ever better.” Always capitalized; does not usually need to be set in italics unless added emphasis is important. When writing for an external audience that may not be familiar with the meaning of Meliora, add the context of “ever better,” but be careful not to imply that the “ever better” is part of the motto.

The University’s motto is Meliora, which means “ever better.”

Meliora, the
Dining facility located inside the Frederick Douglass Building on the River Campus. The dining options include the Faculty Club.

Meliora Hall
Academic and administrative building located on the River Campus. Departments of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and Clinical and Social Psychology; Center for Visual Science; Office of the Bursar; Gwen M. Greene Career and Internship Center; River Campus Copy Center; administrative offices; and general classroom facilities.

Meliora Weekend
Always capitalize the name of the event.

Memorial Art Gallery
Always capitalized when used in full. Avoid the abbreviation MAG in running text.

Messinger Hall
The building on the Eastman Campus is home to the Eastman Community Music School and to administrative offices for the Eastman School of Music.

middle initials
See class years.

Morey Hall
Academic building located on the River Campus. Departments of English and Art and Art History; Frederick Douglass Institute for African and African-American Studies; Department of Naval Science

Mt. Hope Campus
Always capitalized. Always abbreviated “Mt.”

Mt. Hope Family Center

Morgan Hall
Residence hall located in the Susan B. Anthony Halls on the River Campus.

Munro House
Residence hall located on the River Campus in Hill Court.

New York State Center for Advanced Technology
Located on the River Campus

^^N^^

named positions, titles, buildings, and spaces
It’s important to include the proper identifying information when a member of the University community holds a position named in recognition of a donor or dignitary or when a University building or other space has been named to recognize the engagement of particular supporters. Not only does it reinforce accuracy and consistency, but using the full name also provides University recognition for the role that supporters play in the success of the institution.

Depending on the audience and the context of a particular publication, the general rule is to use the complete version of a named title or a named space as the first reference in which the name appears. Shortened or less formal versions are generally acceptable on subsequent references.

If you’re communicating with an external audience that may not be familiar with the University and its programs, it’s almost always best to use the full name on first reference. For many internal audiences, for materials designed for a specific constituency that’s familiar with the University, and for formats such as social media that are naturally more conversational, it’s acceptable to use a shortened version of named spaces on first reference, but do so carefully. Remember that, especially for more recent buildings, the formal version can sometimes add important context. (The full title of a named professorship should always be used on first reference.)

nicknames (of people)
See class years.

numbers
Numbers between one and nine should be spelled out in text. Use figures for numbers 10 and above in most editorial uses. (See Chicago’s “alternative rule” for numbers, 9.3.)
See also, dates, hyphens, time.

nursing school
Lowercase when referring to the University’s School of Nursing on second reference.

^^O^^

O’Brien Hall
Located on the River Campus, the hall is a residence for students in the College.

Omega laser

^^P^^

Patrick Barry House
Located on Mt. Hope Campus.

Peter Barry House
Located on Mt. Hope Campus.

postdoctoral, postgraduate (solid in all uses)

president
Capitalize as part of a full official name, or when used as a title before a name; lowercase otherwise.

Office of the President; President and CEO Joel Seligman

Note: Joel Seligman uses both administrative titles—president and CEO.

Prince Athletic Complex
May be used to refer to the Brian F. Prince Athletic Complex when the context and the reference are clear. The complex encompasses Fauver Stadium, the baseball field area, the Lyman Outdoor Tennis Center, and the north field practice area.

professor
see faculty

provost
Capitalize as part of a full official name, or when used as a title before a name; lowercase otherwise.

^^R^^

River Campus
Always capitalized. In running text, precede with “the.”

The building is located on the River Campus.

Note: the River Campus is a geographic designation. Do not use as synonymous with the College. The River Campus is home to Arts, Sciences & Engineering (which includes the College, the School of Arts & Sciences, and the Hajim School of Engineering & Applied Sciences), Simon Business School, and the Warner School of Education.

River Road Complex
Located on the South Campus. Comprises River Road Laboratory and River Road Residence, a residence hall for graduate students.

Riverview Apartments
A multibuilding apartment complex located on the north side of the Genesee River, across from the River Campus. The complex is owned by a commercial developer and serves as housing for students in the College.

Robert B. Goergen Athletic Center
May be shortened to Goergen Center if the context and reference are clear. Located on the River Campus and houses Edmund A. Hajim Alumni Gymnasium, the Department of Athletics and Recreation, Alexander Palestra, Leibner-Cooper Room, Field House; Speegle-Wilbraham Aquatic Center; Lyman Squash and Racquetball Center.

Robert B. Goergen Hall for Biomedical Engineering and Optics
May be shortened to Goergen Hall if the context and reference are clear.

Rochester
May be used to refer to the University of Rochester when the context and the reference are clear.

Rocky
Name of the University’s spirit mascot.

Ronald Rettner Hall for Media Arts and Innovation
Home to programs in digital media studies and engineering, including the “fab lab.” Rettner Hall is acceptable when the context and reference are clear.

Rush Rhees Library
Located on the River Campus. Departments of History and Religion and Classics, and the Film Studies Program; Multidisciplinary Language Lab; principal library for the River Campus.

^^S^^

Sage Art Center
Located on the River Campus. Teaching and studio facilities for visual arts programs.

Saunders Research Building
Located at the Medical Center. Home to the Clinical and Translational Science Institute.

Schlegel Hall
Located on the River Campus. Home to Simon Business School’s MBA programs, services, and classrooms.

scholar
Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.
a Rhodes Scholar; a scholar of antiquity

school
Capitalize as part of a full official name; lowercase otherwise.

School of Medicine and Dentistry
Capitalize when the complete official name is used. Do not capitalize references to “the medical school.” Do not abbreviate as SMD in formal writing.

School of Nursing
Capitalize when the complete official name is used. Do not capitalize references to “the nursing school.” Do not abbreviate as SON in formal writing.

seasons
References to fall, winter, spring, and summer are lowercased unless the words are used in a title or in constructions in which such nouns would be capitalized.

Simon Business School
Can be used for William E. Simon Graduate School of Business Administration on first reference.

Slater House
Residence hall located in Hill Court on the River Campus.

South Campus
Located to the southwest of the River Campus and the Medical Center. Comprises the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, the Larry and Cindy Bloch Alumni and Advancement Center, University Park, Whipple Park, and River Road residence complexes. In running text, precede with a “the.”

Spurrier Hall
Located on the River Campus. Dance studio and music facilities.

Strong Auditorium
Located on the River Campus. The building has two halls, seating 1,000 and 400, that are used for lectures, films, stage productions, and concerts.

Strong Memorial Hospital
Located at the Medical Center, Strong Memorial Hospital is a main clinical component for UR Medicine’s network and for clinical education at the School of Medicine and Dentistry and the School of Nursing. Can be referred to as Strong on second reference. Do not abbreviate as SMH in formal writing.

^^T^^

Take Five Scholars Program
The academic program offers select students a tuition-free year in which they can take courses organized around project, program, or interdisciplinary area of study. Acceptance into the program is limited and open only to students who have completed the requirements for their degree. Only students who have been selected for the program should be referred to as Take Five Scholars.

Take Five Scholar
Used in all references for students who have been selected to participate in the Take Five Scholars Program. If appropriate, use the nomenclature for class years to designate Take Five Scholars, but note that students can choose to affiliate with either their traditional senior class year or their Take Five Scholar year.

Jane Smith ’15 (T5)

Taylor Hall
Located on the River Campus.

theater
Use theater for general references to theaters or the theater as an endeavor. Use “theatre” if that is the name of a particular theater, such as Eastman Theatre.

Tiernan Hall
Residence hall located on the River Campus.

time
Follow the guidelines in the Chicago Manual.

A few general guidelines include:

Use numbers to refer to time in most instances. In most editorial text, references to a.m. and p.m. should be lowercased and include periods.

The class begins at 8 a.m. and ends at 9:10 a.m.

Use noon (instead of 12 p.m.) and midnight (instead of 12 a.m.)

When it’s important to note the time zone, include a three-letter abbreviation in parentheses after the reference to the time.

The webcast takes place at noon (EST), Saturday, October 15.

Todd Union
Located on the River Campus. Noteworthy as one of the first student unions in the United States, essentially replaced by Wilson Commons. Houses the offices of the College’s Department of Music, the International Theatre Program, the Campus Postal Unit, Linda E. Sloan Studio, Todd Theater, the student-run campus radio station, WRUR-AM and FM, and a bank.

trustee (s)
See “Board of Trustees.”

^^U^^

University Athletic Association
Intercollegiate athletic conference of which the University is a member. May be abbreviated UAA on second reference.

University Health Service
Headquartered in an eponymously named building on the River Campus. UHS is acceptable in informal writing when the reference is clear.

University Information Technology
May be abbreviated as University IT on first reference.

University of Rochester
“University,” when referring to the University of Rochester, is always capitalized.

“Rochester” may be used to refer to the University of Rochester when the meaning is clear.

For external audiences or in materials where the reference needs to be clear or consistent with references to other organizations, use University of Rochester on first reference.

Do not use the abbreviation UR or U of R to refer to the University in formal writing. When “the” precedes “University of Rochester” or “University” in running text, it is not capitalized.

Note: the “the” is not part of the University’s official name.

University of Rochester Medical Center

University of Rochester Neurorestoration Institute

University mission statement
Learn, Discover, Heal, Create—and Make the World Ever Better.

University presidents
A list of presidents and short biographical information is available here.

University Park
Student residence located on the South Campus.

upstate (noun and adjective)

UR
Avoid as an abbreviation for the University in general publications. A few exceptions have been sanctioned.

URLs
For references in running text to uniform resource locaters (URLs) such as websites and online resources, follow the conventions outlined in the Chicago Manual (8.186). Use of shortened versions of URLs (Rochester.edu, for example) is acceptable when the text is clear that a website is being referred to. For sites that include “www” in their addresses, it’s unnecessary to include the initial “http://” as an indicator of an online address. If a site does not include “www” in its address, it’s often advisable to include “http://” to make the URL clear.

UR Medicine
The organizational name for the clinical enterprise of the University, UR Medicine should not be used synonymously for the Medical Center, the School of Medicine and Dentistry, the School of Nursing or other units related to medical research, academic medicine, or teaching. Note that many of UR Medicine’s clinical facilities are located off campus, including outside Rochester.

^^V^^

Valentine Tower
Residence hall located on the South Campus.

^^W^^

Wallis Hall
Located on the River Campus. University executive offices; Office of Admissions and Financial Aid for Arts, Sciences & Engineering.

Warner School of Education
Can be used for the Margaret Warner Graduate School of Education and Human Development on first reference.

web, website, web page, webmaster
Follow the Chicago Manual’s conventions (7.76) for references to the Internet, the web, and other references to electronic resources.

western New York

Whipple Park Apartments
Student residence located on the South Campus.

Wilder Tower
Residence hall located on the River Campus.

Wilmot Building
Academic building located on the River Campus. Offices, seminar rooms, and laboratory facilities for the Institute of Optics.

Wilmot Cancer Institute
Located at the Medical Center and part of UR Medicine, the institute is the main institutional home for clinical care and research involving cancer at the University. The institute encompasses a network of treatment facilities, including its flagship facility, the James P. Wilmot Cancer Center.

Wilson Commons
Located on the River Campus. The campus center’s facilities include student organization offices, and meeting and performing facilities, such as the Stackel Room; Hartnett Art Gallery; the May Room; Havens Lounge; the Gowen Room; Ruth Merrill Student Organization Center. The building is also home to dining options, such as the Commons Food Court and Starbucks.

Witmer House
Located on the Mt. Hope Campus, the building is the official residence of the president.

^^Y^^

Yellowjackets
Nickname for the University’s athletic teams. May be used alone if the context is clear. ’Jackets (with an apostrophe, not a single quote mark) is acceptable on second reference.
Note: the student a cappella group prefers to use YellowJackets, with an intercapped “J.”